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Zeitschriften und Konferenzbeiträge / Conference papers and journals

2013

Ruthe, S.: A market-oriented stochastic optimization framework and its application in the energy domain, Energieinformatik , Wien, Austria, 12.-13. November 2013

Unger, D.; Myrzik, J.M.A.: Agent Based Management of Energy Storage Devices within a Virtual Energy Storage, IEEE Energy Tech, Cleveland, USA, May 29-31, 2013

Yang, D.; Rehtanz, C.; Li, Y.: A hybrid method and its applications to analyse the low frequency oscillations in the interconnected power system, IET Generation, Transmission and Distrubution, Vol. 7, Iss. 8, pp. 874-884, 2013

Li, Y.; Liu, F.; Luo, L.; Rehtanz, C.; Cao, Y.: Enhancement of Commutation Reliability of an HVDC Inverter by Means of an Inductive Filtering Method, IEEE Transactions on Power Elctronics, Vol. 28, Issue 11, pp. 4917-4929, November 2013

Gwisdorf, B.; Unger, D.; Rehtanz, C.; Myrzik, J.: Netztechnische und energetische Bewertung des Netzverstärkungsbedarfs in den deutschen Verteilnetzen, VDE ETG-Kongress 2013, Berlin, 5.-6. November 2013

Kays, J.; Seack, A.; Rehtanz, C.: Detaillierte Einspeiseprognosen für Wind- und Photovoltaikanlagen auf Basis eines Multiagentensystems, Tagungsband ETG-Kongress, Berlin, 5.-6. November 2013

Worgull, A.; Kubis, A.; Friese, A.; Rehtanz, C.: Vergleichsstudie der automatischen Frequenzentlastung unter Berücksichtigung einer veränderten Erzeugungssituation, Internationaler ETG Kongress, Berlin, 5.-6. November 2013

Teuwsen, J.; Liebenau, V.; Rehtanz, C.: Comparison of Regionalization Methods for Network Development Planning, IEEE ISGT Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, October 6-9, 2013

Schlüter, T; Liebenau, V; Rehtanz C.: Technical Potential and Revenue Chances of Flexible Electricity Generation and Load Devices, 4th IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT Europe), Copenhagen, Denmark, October 6-9, 2013

Li, Y.; Saha, T.; Krause, O.; Cao, Y.; Rehtanz, C.: An Inductively Active Filtering Method for Power-Quality Improvement of Distribution Networks With Nonlinear Loads, IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 28, No. 4, October 2013

Negnevitsky, M.; Rehtanz, C.; Häger, U.; Tomin, N.; Kurbatsky, V.; Panasetsky, D.: Pre-Emergency Power System Security Assessment and Control Using Artificial Intelligence Approaches, IEEE Conference Publications, AUPEC '13. Australasian Universities, Power Engineering Conference, 2013

Belitz, H.-J.; Winter, S.; Ebert, A.; Dr. Giese, P.: Anreizsysteme zur Verbrauchsverlagerung im E DeMa-Projekt, ew - Magazin für die Energiewirtschaft, Ausgabe 15/2013, S. 51-53, November 2013

Kays, J.; Seack, A.; Rehtanz, C.: Accurate and realistic regional forecast of renewable infeed in power systems, Cigré Symposium Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, 15.-18. September 2013

Seack, A.; Kays, J.; Jendernalik, L.: Agent based approach to model photovoltaic feed-in in distribution network planning, Cigré Symposium, Auckland, New Zealand, 15.-18. September 2013

Spitalny, L.; Diekerhof, M.; Myrzik, J.M.A.: Potential und Effizienzbetrachtung beim Lastmanagement von Wärmepumpen im Sektor der privaten Haushalte, Konferenz für Nachhaltige Energieversorgung, Tagungsband ISBN-Nr. 978-3-86818-043-5, Hamburg, 2013

Arnold, M.; Friede, W.; Myrzik, J.M.A. : Challenges in Future Distribution Grids - A Review, Sun and Wind Energy, Ostrava, Tschechien, September 2013

Georg, H.; Müller, S. C.; Dorsch, N.; Rehtanz, C.; Wietfeld, C.: INSPIRE: Integrated Co-Simulation of Power and ICT Systems for Real-Time Evaluation, IEEE SmartGridCom 2013, Vancouver, Canada, October 2013

Müller, S. C.; Osthues, M.; Rekowski, C.; Häger, U.; Rehtanz, C.: Techno-Economic Evaluation of Corrective Actions for Efficient Attainment of (N-1)-Security in Operation and Planning, IEEE PES General Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, July 21-25, 2013

Görner, K.; Kolosok, I.; Mutule, A.;Rehtanz, C.; Korkina, E.; Brinkis, K.; Glazunova, A.; Kochukov, O.; Voropai, N.: Coordinated monitoring of large scale interconnected power systems, IEEE PES General Meeting, Vancouver, Canada July 21-25, 2013

Kling, W. L.; Myrzik, J.M.A. : Energy Efficiency in Smart Cities, IEEE PES General Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, July 21-25, 2013

Görner, K.: A Method for Adaptive Time-Synchronized Measurement during Transients, International Conference on Power Systems Transients (IPST2013) in Vancouver, Canada July 18-20, 2013

Shapovalov, A.; Spieker, C.; Rehtanz, C.: Network Reuction Algorithm for Smart Grid Applications, 23nd AUPEC conference proceedings, Hobart, Australia, October 2013

Cao, Y.; Tan, Y.; Li, C.; Rehtanz, C.: Chance-Constrained Optimization-Based Unbalanced Optimal Power Flow for Radial Distribution Networks, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 28, Issue3, pp. 1855-1864, July 2013

Arnold, M.; Friede, W.; Myrzik, J.M.A. : Investigations in low voltage distribution grids with a high penetration of distributed generation and heat pumps, 48th Universities' Power Engineering Conference UPEC 2013, Dublin, Ireland, September 2-5, 2013

Spitalny, L.; Unger, D.; Teuwsen, J.; Liebenau, V.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; van Reeth, B.: Effectiveness of a Building Energy Management System for the Integration of net Zero Energy Buildings into the Grid and for Providing Tertiary Control Reserve, IEEE PowerTech, Grenoble, France, June 16-20, 2013

Liebenau, V.; Schwippe, J.; Kuch, S.; Rehtanz, C. : Network Extension Planning Considering the Uncertainty of Feed-in from Renewable Energies, IEEE PowerTech, Grenoble, France, June 16-20, 2013

Schwippe, J.; Seack, A.; Rehtanz, C.: Pan-European market and network simulation model, IEEE PowerTech, Greenoble, France, June 16-20, 2013

Koch, A.-S.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Wiesner, T.; Jendernalik, L.: Evaluation and Validation of Norton Approaches for Nonlinear Harmonic Models, IEEE PowerTech, Grenoble, France, June 16-20, 2013

Kippelt, S.; Schlüter, T.; Rehtanz, C.: Flexible dimensioning of control reserve for future energy scenarios, IEEE PowerTech, Grenoble, France, 16-20 June 2013

El-Hadidy, A.; Rehtanz, C.; Tusche, M.; Langesberg, C.: Investigation of the Effect of Current and Voltage Transformers’ Errors On Operation of a Differential-Like Impedance Relaying Algorithm- Protection from a Probabilistic Approach, IEEE PowerTech, Grenoble, France, 16-20 June 2013

Klatt, M.; Meyer, J.; Schegner, P.; Koch, A. S.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Körner, C.; Darda, T.; Eberl, G.: Emission Levels Above 2 kHz - Laboratory Results and Survey Measurements in Public Low Voltage Grids, 22nd International Conference on Electricity Distribution (DIRED), Stockholm, Sweden, June 10-13, 2013

El-Hadidy, A.; Rehtanz, C.: Early Detection of Tree Faults, 22th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, CIRED 2013, Stockholm, Sweden, June 10-13, 2013

Müller, S. C.; Kubis. A.; Brato, S.; Rehtanz, C.; Götze, J.: Schutz- und Leitsysteme zur zuverlässigen und sicheren elektrischen Energieübertragung - Interdisziplinäre Forschung im Rahmen der DFG-Forschergruppe 1511, ETG-Mitgliederinformation 2013, Nr. 2, Juni 2013

Gördes, S.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Preckwinkel, H.: Development and Analysis of a Multiple Phase Bidirectional DC/DC Converter for Ripple Reduction and Inductor Optimization, 14th International Scientific Conference Electric Power Engineering, 28.-30. Mai 2013

Liebenau, V.; Teuwsen, J.; Rehtanz, C.: Impact of Regionalization Methods on Network Development Planning, IEEE Energy Tech, Cleveland, USA, May 29- 31, 2013

Müller, S. C.; Häger, U.; Rehtanz, C.: Integrated Coordination of AC Power Flow Controllers and HVDC Transmission by a Multi-Agent System, IEEE MSCPES 2013, Berkeley, CA, May 2013

von Haebler, J.; Osthues, M.; Rehtanz, C.; Blanco, G.: Investment Strategies as a Portfolio of Real Options for Distribution System Planning under Uncertainty, IEEE PowerTech, Grenoble, France, June 16-20, 2013

Spitalny, L.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Mehlhorn, T.: Estimation of the Economic Addressable Market of Micro-CHP and Heat Pumps Based on the Status of the Residential Building Sector in Germany, International Conference on Microgeneration and Related Technologies MICROGEN III, Neapel, Italy, April 15-17, 2013

Aguilar, R.; Perez, F.; Orduna, E.; Rehtanz, C.: The Directional Feature of Current Transients, Application in High-Speed Transmission-Line Protection, IEEE Transactions on Power delivery, Vol. 28, Issue2, pp. 1175-1182, April 2013

Spitalny, L.; Unger, D.; Maasmann, J.; Schwerdt, P.; van Reeth, B.; Thiemann, A.; Myrzik, J.M.A.: Evaluation of Renewable Energy Technologies in a net Zero Energy Office Building in Germany, International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality - ICREPQ’13, Renewable Energy & Power Quality Journal , No.11, ISSN 2172-038X, March 2013

M. Arnold, W. Friede, J.M.A. Myrzik: Challenges in Future Distribution Grids - A Review, International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality - ICREPQ’13, Renewable Energy & Power Quality Journal , No.11, ISSN 2172-038X, March 2013

Spitalny, L.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Mehlhorn, T.: Technische und wirtschaftliche Potentiale zur Substitution konventioneller Energieträger durch den Energieträger Strom im Bereich der Haushaltskunden und der Kleinindustrie, VDI-Expertenforum "Wie managen wir smarte Energie wirklich?" Karlsruhe, 19.-20. März 2013

Worgull, A.; Horenkamp, W.; Kaliwoda, M.; Rehtanz, C.: Selektiver dezentraler Unterfrequenzschutz, ew, Jg. 112, Heft 5, März 2013

Maasmann, J; Myrzik, J.M.A; Thiemann, A: Effizienzsteigerung von Photovoltaik-Modulen durch hochreflektierende Untergrundbeschichtungen auf Flachdächern, Tagungsband: 5. Anwenderforum Bauwerkintegrierte Photovoltaik, OTTI, Regensburg, 5. März 2013

Poier, N.: Configuration and Possible Use of Capacity-Markets in the German Energy Turnaround, IEEE PESS 2013, Tagungsband, ISBN 978-3-923216-76-5, Bielefeld, Januar 2013

Franz, V.; Kubis, A.; Rehtanz, C.: Modellierung eines witterungsabhängigen Überlastschutzes auf Basis eines thermischen Freileitungsmodells, Tagungsband des Power and Energy Student Summit (PESS), S. 63-68, PESS 2013, IEEE Student Branch Bielefeld, 23. - 25. Januar 2013.

Fischer, S.; Kubis, A.; Greve, M.; Rehtanz, C.: Macro-Economic Calculation of the Value of Lost Load and the Costs per Hour of Blackouts in Germany, Tagungsband des Power and Energy Student Summit (PESS), S. 91-94, PESS 2013, IEEE Student Branch Bielefeld, 23. - 25. Januar 2013.

Rolink, J.; Rehtanz, C.: Large-Scale Modeling of Grid-Connected Electric Vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 28, Issue 2, pp. 894-902, Januar 2013

Müller, S. C.; Häger, U.; Georg, H.; Lehnhoff, S.; Rehtanz, C.; Wietfeld, C.; Wedde, H. F.; Zimmermann, T.: Einbindung von intelligenten Entscheidungsverfahren in die dynamische Simulation von elektrischen Energiesystemen, Informatik Spektrum, vol. 36, issue 1, pp 6-16, 01. Februar 2013

Spieker, C.; Müller, S. C.; Schwippe, J.; Rehtanz, C.: Kombinierte Markt- und Netzmodellierung zur Analyse von Engpassmanagementverfahren, IEEE PESS 2013, Bielefeld, Januar 2013

2012

Häger, U.: Coordination Methods for Power Flow Controlling Devices, in “Integration of advanced technologies for future transmission grids, G. Migliavacca, Ed. Springer, 2013

Rüberg, S.; L’Abbate, A.; Fulli, G.; Purvins, A.: High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission, in “Integration of advanced technologies for future transmission grids, G. Migliavacca, Ed. Springer, 2013

Lopes Ferreira, H.; Fulli, G.; L’Abbate, A.; Häger, U.: Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems, in “Integration of advanced technologies for future transmission grids, G. Migliavacca, Ed. Springer, 2013

Aldejohann, C; Horenkamp, W.; Rettberg, F.; Rehtanz, C.: Residual Current Detection with DC Components in Electric Vehicle Charging, European Electric Vehicle Congress (EEVC), Brüssel, Belgien, 20.-22. November 2012

Winter, S.; Belitz, H-J.; Werner, B.: Entwicklung eines E-Energy-Marktplatzes und erste Erfahrungen aus dem Feldversuch im E-DeMa-Projekt“, Tagungsband Smart Energy 2012 – „Wie ist der Weg zur Energiewende?, Verlag Werner Hülsbusch / Fachverlag für Medientechnik und –wirtschaft, Boizenburg, 2012

Engels, C.; Jendernalik, L.; Kienle, A.; Osthues, M.; Spitzer, H.: Smart Planning - IO. Netz* Integrierte Optimierung zur Netzentwicklung und zum Übergang in neue Stromnetzstrukturen“, Tagungsband Smart Energy 2012 - „Wie ist der Weg zur Energiewende?, Verlag Werner Hülsbusch / Fachverlag für Medientechnik und -wirtschaft, Boizenburg, 2012

Li, Y.; Rehtanz, C.; Rüberg, S.; Luo, L.; Cao, Y.: Assessment and Choice of Input Signals for Multiple HVDC and FACTS Wide Area Damping Controllers, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. PP, no. 99, November 2012

Li, Y.; Luo, L.; Rehtanz, C.; Wang, C.; Rüberg, S.: Simulation of the Electromagnetic Response Characteristic of an Inductively Filtered HVDC Converter Transformer Using Field-Circuit Coupling, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 4020-4031, November 2012

Georg, H.; Müller, S.C.; Rehtanz, C.; Wietfeld, C.: A HLA based simulator architecture for co-simulating ICT based power system control and protection systems, Proceedings of the IEEE SmartGridComm 2012, Tainan City, Taiwan, November 2012

Plota, E.; König, D.; Rettberg, F.; Rehtanz, C.: Wirtschaftliche Ladekonzepte von E-Flotten unter Berücksichtigung der Integration erneuerbarer Energien, VDE-Kongress „Smart Grid - Intelligente Energieversorgung der Zukunft“, Stuttgart, 5.-6. November 2012

Langhammer, N.; Mueller, C.; Winter, S.; Belitz, H-J.; König, D.; Kays, R.; Wietfeld, C.; Rehtanz, C.: Zuverlässige Integration intelligenter Laststeuerung und dezentraler Energieerzeugung im E-Energy Projekt E-DeMa,VDE-Kongress „Smart Grid - Intelligente Energieversorgung der Zukunft“, Stuttgart, 5.-6. November 2012

Müller, S.C.; Kubis, A.; Brato, S.; Rehtanz, C.; Götze, J.: Innovative Schutz- und Leitsysteme zur zuverlässigen und sicheren elektrischen Energieübertragung, Tagungsband des VDE-Kongresses „Smart Grid - Intelligente Energieversorgung der Zukunft“, Stuttgart, 5.-6. November 2012

Ruthe, S.; Worgull, A.; Rehtanz, C.: Diskriminierungsfreiheit im Netzmanagement von Verteilnetzen, VDE-Kongress „Smart Grid - Intelligente Energieversorgung der Zukunft“, Stuttgart, 5.-6. November 2012

Belitz, H.J.; Bolczek, M.; Rehtanz, C.: Geschäftsmodelle verschiedener Marktakteure für die Laststeuerung im Haushaltssektor”, , VDE-Kongress „Smart Grid - Intelligente Energieversorgung der Zukunft“, Stuttgart, 5.-6. November 2012

Liebenau, V.; Schlüter, J.; Teuwsen, J.; Rehtanz, C.: Bestimmung des Erlöspotenzials der Bereitstellung von Minutenreserveleistung durch Last- und Erzeugungsmanagement, VDE-Kongress „Smart Grid - Intelligente Energieversorgung der Zukunft“, Stuttgart, 5.-6. November 2012

Wagner, C.; Liebenau, V.; Teuwsen, J.; Rehtanz, C.: Direktvermarktung 2012: Instrument zur Marktintegration erneuerbarer Energien oder Kostentreiber?, Zeitschrift et-Energiewirtschaft-liche Tagesfragen, Heft 11, November 2012

Li, Y.; Liu, F.; Rehtanz, C.; Luo, L.; Cao, Y.: Dynamic output-feedback wide area damping control of HVDC transmission considering signal time-varying delay for stability enhancement of interconnected power systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, No.8, pp.5747-5759, Oktober 2012

Langhammer, N.; Müller, C.; Winter, S.; Belitz, H-J.; Kays, R.; Wietfeld, C; Rehtanz, C.: Technical and Economic Analysis of Future Smart Grid Applications in the E-DeMa Project, IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference, Berlin, 14.-17. Oktober 2012

Ruthe, S.; Rehtanz, C.; Lehnhoff, S.: Towards Frequency Control with Large Scale Virtual Power Plants, IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference, Berlin, 14.-17. Oktober 2012

Hidalgo Rodriguez, D.I.; Spitalny, L.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Braun, M.: Development of a control strategy for mini CHP plants for an active voltage management in low voltage networks, IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference, Berlin, 14.-17. Oktober 2012

Müller, S.C.; Kubis, A.; Brato, S.; Häger, U.; Re-htanz, C.; Götze, J.: New Applications for Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control, Proceedings of the IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference, Berlin, 14.-17. Oktober 2012

Müller, S.C.; Georg, H.; Rehtanz, C. Wietfeld, C.: Hybrid Simulation of Power Systems and ICT for Real-Time Applications, Proceedings of the IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference 2012, Berlin, 14.-17. Oktober 2012

Li, Y.; Luo, L.; Rehtanz, C.; Rüberg, S.; Liu, F.: Realization of Reactive Power Compensation Near the LCC-HVDC Converter-Bridges by Means of an Inductive Filtering Method, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 3908-3923, September 2012

Arestova, A.; Grobovoy, A.; Villella, F.; Bizumic, L.; Cherkaoui, R.; Häger, U.: Application of HVDC to the emergency control of the hybrid DC/AC ENTSO-E – IPS/UPS network interface, Cigré Session 44, Paris, France, August 2012

Shapovalov, A; Schwippe, J.; Rehtanz, C.: Application of convergence recovery methods for illconditioned load flow cases , Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Liberalization and Modernization of Power Systems, LMPS´12, Konferenz in Irkutsk, Russia, 07. August 2012

Li, Y.; Rehtanz, C.; Rüberg, S.; Luo, L.; Cao, Y.: Wide-Area Robust Coordination Approach of HVDC and FACTS Controllers for Damping Mul-tiple Inter-Area Oscillations, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 1096-1105, Juli 2012

Häger, U.; Rehtanz, C.; Voropai, N.: ICOEUR Project Results on Improving Observability and Flexibility of Large Scale Transmission Systems, IEEE PES General Meeting in San Diego, USA, 22.-26. Juli 2012

Koch, A.S.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Wiesner, T.; Jendernalik, L.: Harmonic Measurements and Modeling for Mass Implementation of Nonlinear Appliances, IEEE PES General Meeting, San Diego, USA, 22.-26. Juli 2012

Müller, S. C.; Häger, U.; Georg, H.; Lehnhoff, S.; Rehtanz, C.; Wietfeld, C.; Wedde, H.F.; Zimmermann, T.: Einbindung von intelligenten Entscheidungsverfahren in die dynamische Simula-tion von elektrischen Energiesystemen, Informatik-Spektrum, Springer, Dezember 2012/Januar 2013

Müller, S. C.; Häger, U.; Georg, H.; Lehnhoff, S.; Rehtanz, C.; Wietfeld, C.; Wedde, H.F.: Application of Self-Organizing Systems in Power Systems Control, Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 7343, 2012, S. 320-334, Juni 2012

Rolink, J.; Rehtanz, C.: Design of a Load Management System for Electric Vehicles Based on a Stochastic Model, International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems, Istanbul, Turkey, 10.-14. Juni 2012

Stepanescu, S.; Osthues, M.; Rehtanz, C.: Influence of virtual power plants on the reliability, International Conference on Probabilistic Meth-ods Applied to Power Systems, Istanbul, Turkey, 10.-14. Juni 2012

Osthues, M.; Blanco G.; Rehtanz, C.: Strategic investments and regulatory framework for distribution system planning under uncertainty - An option game approach, International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems, Istanbul, Turkey, 10.-14. Juni 2012

Engels, C.; Jendernalik, L.; Osthues, M.; Spitzer, H.: Integrated optimization of distribution system planning and transition into new grid structures, CIRED Workshop, Lisbon, Portugal, 29.-31. Mai 2012

Unger, D.; Spitalny, L.; Myrzik, J.M.A.: Potential of Small Hydro Power Plants for Delivering ancillary services in Germany, CIRED Workshop, Lisbon, Portugal, 29.-30. Mai 2012

Spitalny, L.; Unger, D.; Myrzik, J.M.A.: Potential of Small Hydro Power Plants for Delivering Control Energy in Germany, IEEE EnergyTech, Cleveland, Ohio, USA 29.-31. Mai 2012

Spitalny, L.; Unger, D.; Myrzik, J.M.A.: Voltage Control by Small Hydro Power Plants Integrated into a Virtual Power Plant, IEEE EnergyTech, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, 29.-30. Mai 2012

Li, Y.; Rehtanz, C.; Yang, D.; Rüberg, S.: Coordinated Wide-Area Damping Control of HVDC and FACTS for Stability Enhancement of Interconnected Systems, “, IEEE Power & Energy Society Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, Orlando, Florida, 7.-10. Mai 2012

Li, Y.; Luo, L.; Rehtanz, C.; Yang, D.; Rüberg, S.; Liu, F.: Harmonic Transfer Characteristics of a New HVDC System Based on an Inductive Filtering Method, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 27, no. 5, Mai 2012

Li, Y.; Luo, L.; Rehtanz, C.; Rüberg, S.; Yang, D.; Xu, J.: An Industrial DC Power Supply System Based on an Inductive Filtering Method, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 714-722, Februar 2012

Yang, D.; Rehtanz, C.; Li, Y.; Liu, QJ.; Görner, K.: Denoising and Detrending of Measured Oscillatory Signal in Power System, Przeglad Elektrotechniczny (Electrical Review), vol. 88, no.3b, pp. 135-139, Februar 2012

Yang, D.; Rehtanz, C.; Li, Y.; Cai, D.: Identification of dominant oscillation mode using complex singular value decomposition method, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 83, Issue 1, pp 227-236, Februar 2012

Rettberg, J.F.: Staatliche Innovationsförderung und die Innovativität von Unternehmen. Eine empirische Untersuchung vor dem Hintergrund des Strukturwandels im Ruhrgebiet, Verlag Dr. Kovac, Hamburg, 2012

Droste-Franke, B.; Paal, B.P.; Rehtanz, C.; Sauer, D.U.; Scheider, J.-P.; Schreuers, M.; Ziesemer, T.: Balancing Renewable Electricity – Energy Storage, Demand Side Management and Network Extension from an Interdisciplinary Perspective, Ethics of Science and Technology Assessment, Vol. 40, Springer-Verlag, 2012

Zhang, X.-P.; Rehtanz, C.: Flexible AC Transmission Systems: Modelling and Control, überarbeitete und erweiterte Edition, Springer-Verlag, 2. Edition, Februar 2012

Rolink, J.; Horenkamp, W.; Rehtanz, C.: Ladeinfrastrukturen für die Netzintegration von Elektrofahrzeugen, at-Automatisierungstechnik, Februar 2012

Shapovalov, A.; Kays, J.; Seack, A.; Rehtanz, C.: Agentenbasierte Netzrekonfiguration für einen optimierten Verteilnetzbetrieb, Tagungsband des Power and Energy Student Summit, S. 71-75, PESS 2012, IEEE Student Branch, Ilmenau, 19.-20. Januar 2012

Noll, T.; Rehtanz, C.: Analyse möglicher Entwicklungspfade des zukünftigen deutschen Energieversorgungssystems, Tagungsband des Power and Energy Student Summit, S. 2-5, PESS 2012, IEEE Student Branch, Ilmenau, 19.-20. Januar 2012

Shao, P.; Luo, L.; Li, Y.; Rehtanz, C.: Electromagnetic Vibration Analysis of the Winding of a New HVDC Converter Transformer, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 27, no. 1, Januar 2012

 

2011

Schwippe, J.; Nüssler, A.; Rehtanz, C.; Bettzüge, M.O.: Netzausbauplanung unter Berücksichtigung probabilistischer Einflussgrößen, Zeitschrift für Energiewirtschaft, Vieweg + Teubner, Nr. 35, S. 125-138, 2011

Ruthe, S.; Schmutzler, J; Rehtanz, C.; Wietfeld, C.: Study on V2G Protocols against the Background of Demand Side Management, International Journal of Interoperability in Business Information Systems (IBIS), Issue 11, 2011

Kleemann, M.; Rehtanz, C.: Centralized Substation Automation Systems based on off-the-shelf Devices, 4th European Conference on HV & MV Substation Equipment, Lyon, November 23-24, 2011

Rehtanz, C.: Stromnetze und -kunden vor dem Hintergrund europäischer Herausforderungen, Fachtagung Smart Energy 2011, Dortmund, 11. Nov. 2011

Rolink, J.; Ruthe, S.;Rehtanz, C.: Aufbau einer Test- und Simulationsumgebung zur Nachbildung von Elektrofahrzeugen am Netz, VDE ETG-Kongress 2011, Würzburg, 8.-9. November 2011

S. Kreutz, S.; Belitz, H.-J.; Giese, P.; König, D.: Aus dem E-DeMa-Projekt: Anreizsysteme beim Kunden für eine aktive Teilnahme am Strommarkt, VDE ETG-Kongress 2011, Würzburg, 8.-9. November 2011

Teuwsen, J.; Belitz, H.-J.; Rehtanz, C.: Erbringung von Energie- und Netzdienstleistungen durch den koordinierten Einsatz von Blockheizkraftwerken in Wohngebäuden, VDE ETG-Kongress 2011, Würzburg, 8.-9. November 2011

Worgull, A.; Gwisdorf, B.; Rehtanz, C.: Bewertung möglicher Restriktionen für μKWK-Anlagen zur Teilnahme am Energiemarkt, VDE ETG-Kongress 2011, Würzburg, 08.-09.11.2011

Gwisdorf, B.; Hammerschmidt, T.; Rehtanz, C.: Praxisgerechte Anwendung innovativer Netzkonzepte mittels Grenzkurvenanalyse zur Unterstützung von Netzplanungsvorgängen, VDE ETG-Kongress 2011, Würzburg, 08.-09.11.2011

Yang, D.; Rehtanz, C.; Li, Y.; e al.: A novel method for analyzing dominant oscillation mode based on improved EMD and signal energy algorithm, SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences, Vol. 54, Issue 9, pp. 2493-2500, September 2011

Fulli, G.; Purvins, A.; Rüberg, S.; L’Abbate, A.; Migliavacca, G.: Evolutions and Challenges Towards a Potential Pan-European HVAC/HVDC SuperGrid, CIGRE Symposium 2011, Bologna, Italy, September 2011

Kays, J.; Seack, A.; Rehtanz, C.: Agent-based modelling of regenerative energy sources for an efficient distribution power system design, CIGRE Symposium, Bologna, Italy, September 13-15, 2011

John, O.; Lehmköster, C.; Rehtanz, C.: Financially optimal decisions of electricity network operators under regulatory uncertainty, CIGRE Symposium, Bologna, Italy, September 13-15, 2011

Kleemann, M.; Rehtanz, C.; Nenning, A.: Power System Protection for Distributed Generators based on off-the-shelf Components, IET Conference on Renewable Power Generation, Edinburgh, September 5-8, 2011

Häger, U.; Rehtanz, C.; Lehnhoff, S.: Analysis of the Robustness of a Distributed Coordination for Power Flow Controllers, 17th Power Systems Computation Conference, PSCC, Stockholm, 22-26 August 22–26, 2011

Kays, J.; Schwippe, J.; Rehtanz, C.: Dimensioning of Reserve Capacity by Means of Multidimensional Method Considering Uncertainties, 17th Power Systems Computation Conference, PSCC, Stockholm, August 22 -26, 2011

Krause, O.; Schwippe, J.; Rehtanz, C.: Analytic Solution of the Classic Probabilistic Load Flow Problem on a full AC model, 17th Power Systems Computation Conference, PSCC, Stockholm, August 22 - 26, 2011

Heskes, P.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W. L.: Ancillary Services for Minimizing the Impact of Resonances in LV Grids by Power Electronic based Distributed Generators, IEEE PES General Meeting, July 2011, Detroit, USA

Li, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Rehtanz, C.; Luo, L.; Rüberg, S.; Liu, F.: Study on Steady- and Transient-State Characteristics of a New HVDC Transmission System Based on an Inductive Filtering Method, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 26, No. 7, pp. 1976-1986, July 2011

Arestova, A.; Häger, U.; Grobovoy, A.; Rehtanz, C.: Super Smart Grids for Improving System Stability at the Example of a Possible Interconnection of ENTSOE and IPS/UPS, IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech 2011, Trondheim, June 19-23, 2011

Blanco, G.; Häger, U.; Olsina, F; Rehtanz, C.: Valuing the Dynamic Power Flow Control of FACTS Devices Under Uncertainties, IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech 2011, Trondheim, June 19-23, 2011

Li, Y.; Luo, L.F.; Rehtanz, C.; Rüberg, S.; Yang, D.: Influence of Inductive Filtering Method on Harmonic Transfer Characteristic of HVDC Transmission System, IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech 2011, Trondheim, June 19-23, 2011

Li, Y.; Rehtanz, C.; Yang, D.; Rüberg, S.: Coordinated Wide-Area Damping Control of HVDC and FACTS for Stability Enhancement of Interconnected Systems, IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech 2011, Trondheim, June 19-23, 2011

Schwippe, J.; Shapovalov, A.; Rehtanz, C.: Enhancement of Load Flow Computation Methods to Improve the Convergence with Automated Measures Based on Stability Analyses, IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech 2011, Trondheim, June 19-23, 2011

Osthues, M.; Schwippe, J.; Rehtanz, C.; Ruthe, S.: Scenario-Based Analysis of Investment Needs for the German Transmission Grid, IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech 2011, Trondheim, June 19-23, 2011

Rolink, J.; Rehtanz, C.: Estimation of the Availability of Grid-Connected Electric Vehicles by Non-Homogeneous Semi-Markov Processes, IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech 2011, Trondheim, June 19-23, 2011

Häger, U.; Görner, K.; Rehtanz, C.: Hardware Model of a Dynamic Power Flow Controller, IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech 2011, Trondheim, June 19-23, 2011

Hammerschmidt, T.; Borchard, T.; Feldmann, J.; Petermann, A.; Rehtanz, C.: Innovative Concepts for Efficient Electrical Distribution Grids, CIRED, 21st Int. Conference on Electricity Distribution, Frankfurt, June 6-9, 2011

Hammerschmidt, T.; Gwisdorf, B.; Rehtanz, C.: Einsatz geschlossener Mittelspannungsringe zur dynamischen Netzoptimierung, EW – Das Magazin für die Energiewirtschaft, EW Jg. 110 (2011), Heft 13, S. 38-43, Juni 2011

Li, Y.; Luo, L.F.; Rehtanz, C.; Xu, J.; Liu, F.: General Model and Harmonic Model for a Kind of New Auto-inductive and Harmonic-suppressing Transformer, Automation of Electric Power Systems, Vol. 35, No. 11, June 10, 2011

Unger, D.; Myrzik, J.M.A.: Analysis of various voltage control methods for low voltage networks with distributed generators, 21st International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, Frankfurt a. M., Germany, June 6-9, 2011

Unger, D.; Spitalny, L.; Myrzik, J.M.A.: Analysis of network requirements based on an estimation of the future energy demand for a German metropolis, 21st International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, Frankfurt a. M., Germany, June 6-9, 2011

Stachorra, E.; Horenkamp, W.; Wild.T.: The influence of conducted PQ-phenomena on the measurement accuracy of smart meters, C I R E D 21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution Frankfurt, Paper 0406, June 6-9, 2011

Voropai, N.I.; Rehtanz, C.: Coordination of operation and emergency control of joint power grids, CIGRE Symposium, St. Petersburg, Russia, May 30 –June 3, 2011

Teuwsen, J.; Spitalny, L; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Rehtanz, C.: Evaluation of operating modes of micro-cogeneration units and a modification of the load profile, IEEE EnergyTech 2011, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, May 25-26, 2011

Rehtanz, C.: Systemintegration für zukünftige Energienetze – Handlungsbedarf und Roadmap, ETG Fachtagung "Übertragung elektrischer Energie", Mannheim, 9.-10. Mai 2011

Stepanescu, S.; Rehtanz, C.; Arad, S.; Fotau, I.; Marcu, M.; Popescu, F.: Implementation of small water power plants regarding future virtual power plants, 10th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering, EEEIC.EU 2011, IEEE, Rom, May 8-11, 2011

Rolink, J.; Rehtanz, C.: Capacity of Low Voltage Grids for Electric Vehicles, 10th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering, EEEIC.EU 2011, IEEE, Rom, May 8-11, 2011

Yang. D.; Rehtanz. C.; Yong L.; Görner K.: A Hybrid Method for Estimation of Low Frequency Oscillation Parameters, Automation of Electric Power Systems, Vol. 35, Issue 10, pp. 23-29, May 2011

Rehtanz, C.; Horenkamp, W.; Ruthe, S.: Integration in Smart Grid erfordert bidirektionale Kommunikation, etz, Heft 5, 2011

Borchard, T.; Gwisdorf, B.; Hammerschmidt, T.; Hoffmann, R.; Rehtanz, C.; Voußem, K.: Spannungsregelungsstrategien für Verteilungsnetze, ew, Heft 5, Jg. 110, S. 42-46, 2011

Lehnhoff, S.; Krause, O.; Rehtanz, C.: Dezentrales autonomes Energiemanagement, ”, at - Automatisierungstechnik, Oldenbourg Verlag, Band 59, Heft 3, S. 167-179, 2011

Häger, U.; Lehnhoff, S.; Rehtanz, C.: Verteilte koordinierte Lastflusssteuerung in elektrischen Energieübertragungsnetzen, at - Automatisierungstechnik, Oldenbourg Verlag, Band 59, Heft 3, S. 153-160, 2011

Li, Y.; Zhang, Z.W.; Rehtanz, C.; Luo, L.F.; Rüberg, S.; Yang, D.C.: A new voltage source converter-HVDC transmission system based on an inductive filtering method, ”, IET Generation, Transmission, Distribution, Vol. 5, Iss. 5, pp. 569-576, 2011

Rehtanz, C.; Noll, T.; Hauptmeier, E.: Auswirkungen fluktuierender Einspeisungen auf das Gesamtsystem der elektrischen Energieversorgung, Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen, No. 4, 2011

Rehtanz, C.: Leistungselektronik für Smart Grids - Die zukünftige Rolle der Leistungselektronik in der elektrischen Energieversorgung, ETG Fachtagung „Leistungselektronik und Systemintegration“, Bad Nauheim, 13.-14. April 2011

Yang, D.; Rehtanz, C.; Li, Y.; et al.: Researching on Low Frequency Oscillation in Power System Based on Improved HHT Algorithm, Proceedings of the CSEE, Vol. 31, Issue 10, pp.102-108, April 2011

Li, Y.; Rehtanz, C.; Yang, D.C.; Rüberg, S.; Häger, U.: Robust high-voltage direct current stabilising control using wide-area measurement and taking transmission time delay into consideration, IET Generation, Transmission, Distribution, Vol. 5, Issue 3, pp. 289-297, March 2011

Rehtanz, C.: Smarte Ideen für zukünftige Stromnetze, in „Herausforderung Energie", Ausgewählte Vorträge der 126. Versammlung der Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte e.V., Renn, J., Schlögl, R., Zenner, H.-P. (Hrsg.), Max Planck Research Library, 2011

Yang, D.; Rehtanz, C.; Yong, L.; Voußem, K.: An Improved Prototype Algorithm Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and Its Application in Extracting Instantaneous Parameters of Low Frequency Oscillation, Power System Technology, March, 2011, Vol. 35, Issue 3, pp. 63-68, March 2011

Schlüter, T.; Rehtanz, C.: Evaluation of different Supply Concepts for Electric Vehicles, Tagung Kraftwerk Batterie, Aachen, März 2011

Borchard, T.; Gwisdorf, B.; Hammerschmidt, T.; Hoffmann, R.; Rehtanz, C.; Voußem, K.: Spannungsregelungsstrategien für Verteilungsnetze, EW – Das Magazin für die Energiewirtschaft, EW Jg. 110 (2011), Heft 5, S. 42-46, Februar 2011

Blanco, G.; Waniek, D.; Olsina, F.; Garces, F.; Rehtanz, C.: Flexible investment decisions in the European interconnected transmission system, in: Electric Power Systems Research, Elsevier, 8. Jan. 2011

Blanco, G.; Olsina, F.; Garces, F.; Rehtanz, C.: Real Option Valuation of FACTS Investments Based on the Least Square Monte Carlo Method, in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Issue 99, 6. Jan. 2011

Lehnhoff, S.; Häger, U.; Zimmermann, T.; Rehtanz, C.: Autonomous Distributed Coordination of Fast Power Flow Controllers in Transmission Networks, presented at ISGT, Manchester, 2011

2010

Bhattacharyya, S.; Cobben J.F.G.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.: Flicker propagation and emission coordinaton study in a simulated low voltage network,. European Transactions on Electrical Power, 20(1), 52-67, January 2010

Voltage flicker is an irritating problem especially for the low voltage (LV) customers. It is mainly caused by the loads having repetitive cycle of operation. During the past years, the network operators around the world have registered many complaints from the customers about flicker related problems. Presently, there is no common standard value for the flicker planning level available globally. Moreover, in some countries (for example, in the Netherlands), the existing networks are not even based on a specific planning level value for flicker. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss the flicker planning level values in different voltage levels to overcome flicker related problems. In this paper a typical LV network is simulated to analyze the flicker propagation behavior in the network. The effects of switching LV disturbing loads (such as elevator, welding machine, etc.) on flicker generation at different customer's installations are studied by using synchronized measurement technique. Also, the impacts of the background flicker pollution transferred from the upstream to the downstream networks are analyzed. The simulation results give an overview of the flicker pollution levels at the LV customer's installations in the presence of background flicker. This paper estimates the maximum value of flicker emission share at different customer's point of connections (POC), considering the impact of background flicker pollution. Finally, planning level values of flicker in different voltage levels are suggested that can be useful for the network operators in designing their future networks

Kleemann, M.; Horenkamp, W.; Stachorra, E.; Toffel, L.:Automatisierter Teststand für dezentrale Energieerzeugungsanlagen bis zu 5 kVA", 11. Symposium Energieinnovationen 2010, Graz, 10.-12. Februar 2010

Dezentrale Einspeisung in das Niederspannungsnetz darf weder die Sicherheit von Personen und Betriebsmitteln noch die Versorgungsqualität der Netze beeinträchtigen. So müssen Netzrückwirkungen begrenzt und Netzschutzfunktionen in den dezentralen Energieumwandlungsanlagen integriert oder als externe Komponente eingesetzt werden. Zur Prüfung dieser Schutzfunktionen und zur Untersuchung von Netzrückwirkungen hinsichtlich der geltenden Normen wurde ein teilautomatisierter Teststand entwickelt. Grundbedingung war eine strukturierte und möglichst einfache Bedienung und Dokumentation der Prüfungen bei vertretbarem Aufwand sowie eine einfache Erweiterung und Anpassbarkeit an zukünftige Normen und Richtlinien.

Laskowksi, M.; Franz, O. H.; König, D.; Rehtanz, C.:Development and Demonstration of Decentralised Power Systems Culminating in a Future E-Energy Marketplace", it – Information Technology, Oldenbourg Verlag, No. 2, pp. 74-82, February 2010

The introduction of smart meter solutions - especially within the residential and commercial customer segment - will lead to new opportunities for customer interaction with the energy market and for boosting consumer awareness for electricity consumption. Both of them help to increase end user energy efficiency. Within the BMWi project E-Energy the E-DeMa consortium with the members RWE, Siemens, ef.ruhr, Stadtwerke Krefeld, Miele and ProSyst draws on the capabilities of current smart meter solutions and extends them to a future marketplace for all services and products around demand side management, flexible tariff structures or network services. The subscriber as prosumer (simultaneously producer and consumer) develops to become an active market player. The aim of this project is to create conditions for the efficient handling of energy resources.

Li, Y.; Rehtanz, C.; Yang, D.; Rüberg, S.; Luo, L.F.:Feasibility Study on Application of Voltage Source Inductive Filtering Converter in HVDC-Light Systems", Proceedings of 2010 Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), IEEE Press, Chengdu, China, March 2010

This paper presents a new voltage source inductive filtering converter (VSIFC) for HVDC-Light transmission system, which is mainly composed of the inductive filtering (IF) transformer and the related full-tuned (FT) branches with the commutating function for the self-commutated converter. This paper concerns on the technical feasibility on the application of VSIFC in HVDC-Light systems. Firstly, two kinds of maincircuit topologies of VSIFCs are proposed, and based on this, a typical test system for the proposed VSIFC-based HVDC-Light transmission is established. Then, the study on the unique inductive filtering characteristic and the transient stability that VSIFCbased HVDC transmission system has are performed in the PSCAD/EMTDC environment. Through the comparison with the classic VSC-based HVDC system, this paper verifies the technical feasibility on the application of VSIFC in HVDC-Light systems, and further reveals a series of technical characteristics and superiorities that VSIFC-based HVDC-Light system has.

Li, Y.; Luo, L.F.; He, D.J.; Rehtanz, C.; Yang, D.; Rüberg, S.:Study on the Effects of the DC Bias on the Harmonic Characteristics of the New Converter Transformer" Proceedings of 2010 Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), IEEE Press, Chengdu, China, March 2010

DC bias is the problem that must be faced in the course of the design of the converter transformer for the high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission system, especially the new converter transformer that has the unique wiring scheme. This paper will theoretically analyze the basic cause of the dc bias of the new converter, and then according to the real no-load characteristic of the new converter transformer, its simulation model, which considers the hysteresis loss of the core of the new converter transformer, will be established by the means of data fitting. Based on the established simulation model, the harmonic characteristic of the new converter transformer caused by the dc bias will be simulated and analyzed in detail. Furthermore, this paper will propose a new inductive filtering technology to suppress the harmonic caused by the dc bias. Finally, compared with the traditional converter transformer, the superiority that the new suppression scheme has will be revealed.

Yang, D.; Li, Y.; Rehtanz, C.; Luo, L.F.; Xu, J.:Study on Harmonic Losses of Inductive Filtering Converter Transformer (IFCT) in HVDC System", Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), 2010 Asia-Pacific, Chengdu, China, March 28- 31, 2010

Based on the wiring scheme and the operating principle of the inductive filtering converter transformer (IFCT), this paper analyzes the effect of harmonic on the converter transformer, and establishes the harmonic losses model for the traditional converter transformer (TCT) and the IFCT, respectively. Furthermore, according to the IEC61378-2 standard and the superposition principle, the harmonics losses are calculated in detail. The simulation results verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis, and show that the harmonic losses of the IFCT are lower than that of the TCT, and the implement of the inductive filtering method can reduce the losses of converter station greatly.

Wedde, H.F.; Lehnhoff, S.; Rehtanz, C.; Krause, O.:Intelligent Agents under Collaborative Control in Emerging Power Systems", Int. Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology (IJEST), Special Issue on Applications of CI in Emerging Power Systems, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 45-59, ISSN: 2141-2820, March 2010

 In the world of liberalized power markets traditional power management concepts have come to their limits. Optimal pricing can no longer be achieved, e.g. for very short-time needs across grids. Power line overload and grid stability, increasingly resulting in regional or even global black-outs, are at stake. With the highly desirable expansion of renewable energy production these challenges are experienced in quite an amplified way: We argue that for this emergent technology the traditional top-down and long-term power management is obsolete, due to the wide dispersion and high unpredictability of wind and solar-based power facilities. In the DECENT0F 1 R&D initiative we developed a multi-level, bottom-up solution where autonomous collaborative software agents negotiate available energy quantities and needs on behalf of consumer and producer groups (the DEZENT algorithm). We operate within very short time intervals of assumedly constant demand and supply, in our case periods of 0.5sec (switching delay for a light bulb). The solution has proven to be secure against a relevant variety of malicious attacks. Within this time interval we are also able to manage the coordinated power distribution, and achieve grid stability. In this paper the main contribution is to make the negotiation strategies themselves adaptive across periods: We derive the dynamic distributed learning algorithm DECOLEARN from Reinforcement Learning principles for providing the agents with collaborative intelligence and at the same time proving substantially superior to conventional (static) procedures. We report briefly on our extensive comparative simulation experiments.

Heskes, P.J.M.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.:Impact of Distribution System‘s Non- Linear Loads with Constant Power on Grid Voltage", ETAP Journal, March 2010

Today's electrical appliances are more and more built with and controlled by power electronics and processors, and their number is growing. This development can bring both advantages and disadvantages for the power quality of the electricity supply system. An advantage, for example is the growing number of home appliances that are equipped with a power factor corrector frontend. This type of appliance behaves as a resistive load and has a very good power factor. A disadvantage is the constant power load (CPL) character that shows up when the appliance is stabilized against grid voltage fluctuations by a power electronic front-end. This paper investigates the oscillatory grid voltage effect of certain amounts of CPLs in a small isolated grid system and the impact on the quality of the voltage. Results of computer simulations show that an oscillatory grid voltage due to an interaction of a CPL with the voltage control system of a generator is possible and can be reduced by changing the parameters of the voltage control system.

Janssen, P.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.; Reinders, L.:Technical feasibility study for a solar energy system at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (AAS)", International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ‘10), Granada (Spain), March 23-25, 2010

This work arises within the framework of the introduction of renewable energies at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (AAS) and the focus is on the technical feasibility of a solar energy system (SES) on ground level. The flight safety must always be guaranteed if solar panels are implemented on AAS. The radiation reflection of solar panels according to the optical effect towards the pilot of an airplane and the line of sight of the Air traffic tower has been studied. Also the constraints for installing an object at the Airport have to be taken into account. This should lead to an overall impression of the potential of solar panels that can be orientated on ground level. A complete model of a solar energy system is designed: tilt angle, type of solar panels, equipment (DC/AC inverter), a cable system as well as the way the design can be implemented in the electricity infrastructure of AAS. Power Quality (PQ) and the effects of implementing a SES will be discussed: disturbances have to be minimized.

Rehtanz, C.; e.a. (Koautor):Elektrofahrzeuge – Bedeutung, Stand der Technik, Handlungsbedarf" VDE-ETG-Studie, 29. April 2010

In der Studie werden die Potentiale von Elektrofahrzeugen mit Batterien aufgezeigt, die technische Realisierbarkeit der einzelnen Komponenten bewertet und der Forschungs- und Entwicklungsbedarf abgeleitet. Bei der Anbindung der Fahrzeuge an das Versorgungsnetz wird in Szenarien die Einführung von 1 Mio. Elektrofahrzeugen und mehr beschrieben.

Gaonkar, D.N.; 2010 Distributed Generation Chapter: Coster, E.J.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.:Effect of distributed generation on distributed grid protection", published by INTECH April 2010, ISBN 978-953-307-046-9

In this chapter the effect of distributed generation on the protection of distribution grids was treated. It was demonstrated that DG-units with a synchronous generator can have a strong influence on the grid contribution to the fault current. Important parameters which determine the effect of the generator on the grid contribution to the fault current are the total feeder impedance, the local short-circuit power, the size and the location of the generator. In a simulation of a 3-bus network it was shown that the generator has more effect on the grid contribution to the fault current for feeders consisting of overhead lines than for the same type of feeder built up of cables. For the analytical description of the grid contribution to the fault current an equation was derived which can be used to calculate the worst-case generator location. Then, an overview of all possible protection problems was given and categorized into fault detection and selectivity problems. It was pointed out that solving the fault detection problem directly influence the reliability of a protective system while solving selectivity problems affect the security of a protective system. In general a case study showed that dynamic simulations are necessary to evaluate the performance of a protective system of a feeder including DG.

Rehtanz, C.; e.a. (Koautor):Die deutsche Normungsroadmap E-Energy / Smart Grid ", Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik, Elektronik, Informationstechnik (DKE) im DIN und VDE, Herausgeber: VDE, April 2010

 Die Entwicklung von einheitlichen Normen und Standards ist eine wesentliche Voraussetzung für die Einführung von Smart Grids. Dazu bedarf es einer Smard Grid-Architektur, die u. a. Anforderungen an Erweiterbarkeit, Verfügbarkeit, Sicherheit und Interoperabilität erfüllen muss. Daher wurde von der DKE in Zusammenarbeit mit E-Energy und Partnern aus der Energieversorgung, Industrie und Forschungseinrichtungen einen ersten Entwurf einer Normungsroadmap, welche die Anforderungen an Normen und Standards für eine deutsche Vision des Smard Grids darstellt erstellt. Neben den Gründen für eine Einführung von Smart Grids werden die heute noch unterschiedlichen Definitionen von Smart Grid beschrieben. Des Weiteren ist eine Zusammenstellung aktueller nationale und internationaler Normen und Standards erstellt worden. Abschießend werden Empfehlungen für das weitere Vorgehen für die verschiedenen Themengruppen, wie z.B. regulatorische und legislative Änderungen, Kommunikation, Verteilnetzautomatisierung, Smart Metering, Elektromobilität, Speicherung, Lastmanagement und Inhouse Automatisation erstellt.

Li, Y.; Luo, L.F.; Shao, F.P.; Rehtanz, C.; Yang, D.; Rüberg, S.:A New Auto- Inductive Harmonic-Suppression Transformer and Its Harmonic Equivalent Circuit Model", Proc. of 9th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC), IEEE Press, Prague, Czech Republic May 16-19, 2010

According to the demand of harmonic suppression and reactive power compensation for largepower electrical ac/dc converter systems, this paper proposes a new autoinductive harmonicsuppression (AIHS) transformer and a corresponding inductive filtering technology, analyzes its harmonic model constructed by the transformer windings and the full-tuned circuit under the specific harmonic frequencies, and establishes the harmonic equivalence circuit model. Based on this, this paper reveals the filtering mechanism of the new inductive filtering technology, and obtains the necessary impedance condition of the new transformer and the tuned condition of the full-tuned circuit to suppress the main harmonic currents in the secondary windings. Finally, a test study on a railway traction prototype system with the AIHStype single-phase traction transformer is performed to verify the correctness of theoretical analysis, and present the good inductive filtering performance that the new transformer has.

Yang, D.; Li, Y.; Rehtanz, C.; Xiu, R.:Analysis of Low Frequency Oscillations in Power System based on HHT Technique", 9th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC) , Prague, Czech Republic, May 16-19, 2010.

In this paper, a non-linear analysis tool based on Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) is used to extract time varying oscillations characteristics from the information provided by Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS). The filtered signal is decomposed into finite numbers Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), and then the instantaneous parameters, including frequency, amplitude and damping ratio of dominant IMF will be obtained by Hilbert Transform (HT) and specific calculating formula. Both the results of simulations and the actual applications in power system show that it is a powerful tool for the oscillation research.

Rehtanz , C.(Leiter und Koautor); Aundrup, T.; Benz, T.; Dörnemann, C.; Fischer, W.; Gehlen, C.; Glaunsinger, W.; Hellmuth, H.; Kreusel, J.; Menke, P.; Neumaier, R.; Schomberg, A.; Schwippe, J.:Übertragung elektrischer Energie, Positionspapier der Energietechnischen Gesellschaft im VDE (ETG)", VDE Verband der Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik e.V., Mai 2010

Die Anforderungen an Energieübertragungsnetze in Deutschland und Europa sind zunehmend geprägt durch die europaweiten Energiemärkte und sich verlagernde Einspeiseorte insbesondere infolge des verstärkten Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energiequellen. Unabhängig von den Organisationsformen, den Besitzverhältnissen und den politischen Randbedingungen für die Netzbetreiber bleibt das übergeordnete Ziel die Gestaltung und der Betrieb eines möglichst effizienten Übertragungsnetzes, welches auch unter den sich verändernden Anforderungen den Kriterien der Umweltverträglichkeit, Akzeptanz, Effizienz, Wirtschaftlichkeit und Sicherheit für die Versorgung gleichermaßen genügt. Eine sichere Energieversorgung zu angemessenen Preisen bei geringem Umwelteinfluss ist ein entscheidender Erfolgsfaktor für den Wirtschaftsstandort Deutschland. Die Experten der Energietechnischen Gesellschaft im VDE stellen in diesem Dokument den aktuellen Sachstand und die technologischen Optionen zur elektrischen Energieübertragung aus Sicht der Netzbetreiber, Hersteller, Verbände und der Wissenschaft bewertend dar und leiten hieraus Empfehlungen für die technologische Weiterentwicklung des Übertragungsnetzes ab.

Stepanescu, S.; Fotau, I.; Stepanescu, A.:METHODS OF SHAPPING THE LOAD CURVE USING DISTRIBUTED GENERATORS", WEC Regional Energy Forum- FOREN 2010, June 13-17, 2010 ,

 Romania This paper presents an approach to renewable sources or “green-energy” source, the so-called virtual power plants. Virtual power plant is a grouping of several small power plants that supplies the distribution network.

Waniek, D.; Rehtanz, C.; Handschin, E.:Flow-based Evaluation of Congestions in the Electric Power Transmission System" 7th International Conference on the European Energy Market, Madrid, Spain , June 23–25, 2010

In this paper the practical implementation of a flow-based method for the allocation of limited cross-border transmission capacity is modelled. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the approach compared to traditional methods based on bilateral conventions for the trading transactions, economic and technical performance indicators are presented. The developed approach is applied to a model of the Central Western European region. The results show that the flow-based method can improve the net-work efficiency leading to lower generation cost and higher economic welfare in the regarded region. The necessary simplifications of the load flow equations cause inevitable deviations of the estimated flows but the general behaviour is uncritical. Apart from that, single situations require a sensitive monitoring by the involved parties.

Gwisdorf, B.; Belitz,H.; Rehtanz, C.:Der richtige Anschluss - Konzepte zur energetisch und wirtschaftlich effizienten Energieversorgung von Neubaugebieten" Studie im Auftrag der Stadtwerke Unna GmbH, veröffentlicht bei der Arbeitsgemeinschaft für sparsame Energie- und Wasserverwendung (ASEW) im Verband kommunaler Unternehmen (VKU), Juni 2010

Steigende Energiepreise und politische Klimaschutzziele forcieren die Forderung nach effizienten Konzepten zur thermischen Energieversorgung von Neubaugebieten. Aus Sicht des Energieversorgers ist gerade der Ausbau der Energieversorgung in Neubaugebieten eine Herausforderung. Die im Auftrag der Stadtwerke Unna GmbH erstellte Studie „Der richtige Anschluss – Konzepte zur energetisch und wirtschaftlich effizienten Energieversorgung von Neubaugebieten bewertet verschiedene dezentrale und zentrale Konzepte sowohl aus Sicht eines Energieversorgungsunternehmens (EVU) als auch aus Sicht der Privatinvestoren und Endverbraucher.

Rehtanz, C.:Auf intelligenten Wegen in die Steckdose", DFG Forschung Spezial Energie, DFG, S. 44-49, Juni 2010

Sie verbinden die Kraftwerke über den ganzen Kontinent, liefern den Strom an die Kunden, sind Marktplatz und Integrationsplattform für erneuerbare Energien: Elektrische Netze müssen immer komplexere Anforderungen erfüllen. Modernste Verfahren und Technologien sichern die Überwachung und die Steuerung der Systeme. Becks, T.; De Doncker, R.;

Rehtanz, C.; Reinhardt, A.M.; Willums, J.O.:Wegweiser Elektromobilität", VDE-Verlag, Juni 2010, ISBN 987-3-8007-3280-7

Das Wissen um geförderte Projekte und ihre Ergebnisse hilft, die eigne Innovationstätigkeit zu sichern, fördert vorwettbewerblichen Wissenstransfer und ermöglicht die Nutzung von Synergien. Hier will der neue „Wegweiser Elektromobilität seinen Beitrag leisten. Er versorgt den Leser mit wertvollen Basisinformationen zu mehr als 150 nationalen und internationalen Projekten im Bereich Elektromobilität.

Yang, D.; Li, Y.; Rehtanz, C.; Liu, Z.; Luo, L.F.:Overview of Smart Transmission System in China", Power System Technology, June 2010, 34(5):1-6(in Chinese).

With increasing development of nationwide power grid interconnection and construction of UHVAC/ UHVDC power transmission projects, the construction of smart power transmission systems will be the vital task in China‘s power grid construction, however, traditional power transmission systems are indicative of certain limitation during the adaptation of them to the development of modern power grids. In this paper, the authors analyze the reasons of constructing smart power transmission systems, and propose the structure and functional characteristics in adaptation to smart power transmission systems in China. Firstly, the features and transmitted contents of power communication systems are presented; then the technical features of smart substations and the structure of integrated automation systems are analyzed; the core technologies for the construction of smart power transmission network are summarized; the basic functions, extended functions and alternate functions of power transmission control center are enumerated, and finally it is pointed out that the development of China‘s power transmission networks in the postsmart power grid era should be the problem to be considered in the planning and construction of smart power transmission systems.

Heskes, P.J.M.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.:Harmonic Distortion and Oscillatory Voltages and the Role of Negative Im Pedance", IEEE PES General Meeting, July 25-29, 2010, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

This paper focuses on two power quality effects that are noticed with power electronic appliances. One effect is a harmonic oscillation by inverters of photo voltaic systems because they bring a high parallel capacitance to the grid and negative output impedance. The other effect is a subharmonic oscillation due to the negative differential impedance of constant power loads. This paper discusses both effects and proposes counter measures to mitigate these effects. For harmonic oscillations due to photo voltaic inverters, an extra feature for these inverters is discussed. For the sub-harmonic oscillatory voltages due to appliances with negative differential impedances, a solution can be found in the voltage control systems of the power generators connected to the network.

Häger, U.; Seack, A.; Rehtanz, C.; Lehnhoff, S.; Zimmermann, T.; Wedde, H.F.:Applicability of Coordinated Power Flow Control based on Multi-Agent Systems" IREP Symposium - Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control - VIII, Buzios, RJ, Brazil, August 1-6, 2010

An overall increase in power demand together with the liberalization of the power markets and the integration of high capacity unpredictable renewable resources (e.g. wind power) pose a challenge to transmission networks. Network operators have to guarantee a stable and efficient operating of the grid. A way to improve the stability and efficiency of the existing network – aside from expensive reconstruction – is the integration of fast power flow controllers in order to dynamically redirect power flows away from critically loaded resources that may be threatened by an overload. In this paper we present a multi-agent based algorithm that allows for an autonomous distributed coordination of fast power flow controllers without the need for global information.

Waniek, D.; Rehtanz, C.:Vergleich von Allokationsmethoden zur Kapazitätsvergabe bei grenzüberschreitenden Netzengpässen", Zeitschrift für Energiewirtschaft, No. 3, S. 185-194, August 2010

Innerhalb Europas wird in zahlreichen Marktinitiativen die Implementierung von flussbasierten Methoden zur Kapazitätsvergabe angestrebt. Im Gegensatz zu den heute üblichen, transaktionsbezogen Methoden versprechen diese eine verbesserte Ausnutzung der grenzüberschreitenden Kuppelkapazitäten. Um die Auswirkungen zu quantifizieren, wurde ein Modell entwickelt, das eine gekoppelte Betrachtung des Kraftwerkseinsatzes und der daraus resultierenden Lastflüsse im Übertragungsnetz erlaubt. Mithilfe detaillierter Daten der Region Zentral-Westeuropa wurde dieses Modell für die Darstellung der Vorteile einer flussbasierten Allokation genutzt. Durch die genauere Abbildung der tatsächlichen Flüsse innerhalb des Algorithmus kann das Handelsvolumen signifikant erhöht werden, was zu einer zunehmenden Konvergenz der einzelnen Marktpreise führt. Allerdings profitieren in dem dargestellten Fall nicht alle beteiligten Marktteilnehmer in gleicher Weise von den Handelsmöglichkeiten. Direkte ökonomische Signale hinsichtlich der Vorteilhaftigkeit verschiedener Kraftwerksstandorte werden aufgrund der in der Praxis notwendigen Vereinfachungen nicht gesendet, jedoch kann der systemweite Einfluss der regionalen Einspeisung bewertet und daher ggf. auch gesteuert werden.

El-Hadidy, A.; Rehtanz, C.:A New Algorithm to improve the Operation of Distance Relays Zone 3 by Using Synchronized Phasor Measurements", MEPS‘ 2010 Modern Electric Power Systems, Warsaw, Poland, September 20 – 22, 2010

Cascaded tripping of power lines due to mal-operation of zone 3 distance relays was one of the main causes of many previous blackouts worldwide. Encroachment of load into zone 3 characteristics during stressed system operation conditions was a basic factor for such mal-operation of the relays. By improving the operation of zone 3 it is possible to prevent mal-operations so that cascaded line tripping can be avoided. This paper proposes a new algorithm that utilizes Synchronized Phasor Measurements (SPM) to enhance the operation of distance protection zone 3 in many aspects. For instance, the relay can differentiate between actual system faults and load encroachment and be blocked. In addition to this, the tripping decision is not affected by the value of fault resistances from zero to High Impedance Faults (HIF) values. The paper discusses the basic idea of the new algorithm and explains with the aid of a simple application how to apply it.

Koch, A.S.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Wiesner, T.; Jendernalik, L.:Harmonics and Resonances in the Low Voltage Grid Caused by Compact Fluorescent Lamps", 14th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power‖ (ICHQP 2010) Bergamo, Italy, September 26-29, 2010

The effects of a widespread use of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) on harmonics in the low voltage grid are analyzed. Therefore, measurements of the harmonic characteristics of nine different brands of CFLs are done. Based on these measurement results, a simulation model is developed, which enables to study the interaction of multiple CFLs. Thereby, the harmonic content of both currents and voltages are considered. Additionally, the impact of the capacitive behavior of CFLs on resonances phenomena is investigated and its consequences for the harmonic spectrum are represented.

Gwisdorf, B.; Borchard, T.; Hammerschmidt, T.; Rehtanz, C.:Technical and economic evaluation of voltage regulation strategies for distribution grids with a high amount of fluctuating dispersed generation units", IEEE Conference on Innovative Technologies for an Efficient and Reliable Electricity Supply, Boston, USA, September 27-29, 2010

A high amount of fluctuating dispersed generation units causes voltage problems in supply areas with low load density and long distribution lines. Innovative and smart solutions to these problems must be considered alongside conventional grid expansion in order to achieve an efficient electricity supply. In the context of a research project, which is partly funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, several alternative approaches for solving voltage problems are being identified and evaluated. The different approaches range from voltage control units and reactive power management systems to a change of grid structures. In this paper, several voltage regulation units are proposed and their benefit for distribution grids with a high amount of fluctuating dispersed generation units is evaluated.

Coster, E. J.; Myrzik, J. M. A.; Kruimer, B.; Kling, W. L.:Integration Issues of Distributed Generation in Distribution Grids‖, Proceedings of the IEEE Volume": PP, Issue: 99 : September 2010, Page(s): 1 – 12

In today's distribution grids the number of distributed generation (DG) units is increasing rapidly. Combined heat and power (CHP) plants and wind turbines are most often installed. Integration of these DG units into the distribution grid leads to planning as well as operational challenges. Based on the experience of a Dutch distribution system operators (DSO), this paper addresses several possibilities to handle grid planning issues. Effects on voltage control, grid protection, and fault levels are investigated and described. These aspects are illustrated with the aid of simulations on an existing distribution grid. It is demonstrated that in compact distribution grids voltage control problems and blinding of protection are not likely to occur and that false tripping and fault level have to be considered carefully.

Lehnhoff, S.; Häger, U.; Krause, O.; Fürst, T.; Wedde, H.F.; Rehtanz, C.:Verteilte Koordinierung von Leistungsflussreglern in Übertragungsnetzen", Workshop: Informatik für die Energiesysteme der Zukunft, GI-Edition Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), Leipzig, 27. Sept. - 2. Oktober 2010, Springer, 2010

Eine Möglichkeit zur Erhöhung der Übertragungskapazität und damit zur Vermeidung von Netzengpässen im elektrischen Energietransportnetz stellt der Einsatz von Leistungsflussreglern (LFR) dar. Diese Regler ermöglichen eine Verschiebung des Leistungsflusses von belasteten Leitungen auf weniger ausgelastete parallel verlaufende Pfade und damit eine effizientere Betriebsmittelauslastung der zur Verfügung stehenden Netze. Zur Ausregelung von weiträumigen Netzengpässen werden mehrere solcher LFR benötigt, die für einen optimalen Einsatz koordiniert betrieben werden müssen. Dieser Beitrag stellt einen agentenbasierten verteilten Lösungs- und Koordinationsansatzes vor, bei dem LFR weitestgehend autonom und unter Verzicht auf globale vollständige Informationen kritische Belastungssituationen rechtzeitig erkennen und durch geeignete Regelungsaktionen (weiträumig) entschärfen.

Gwisdorf, B.; Stepanescu, S.; Rehtanz, C.:Effects of Demand Side Management on the Planning and Operation of Distribution Grids", IEEE PES Conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, Göteborg, Sweden, October 10-13, 2010

This paper presents the effects of Demand Side Management (DSM) on the planning and operation of distribution grids. For this purpose the impact of DSM on the simultaneity function (also known as coincidence function) of electrical loads is taken into consideration. If there is a high DSM partici-pation a distinct increase of the simultaneity factor can occur temporarily. The effects of an increased simultaneity factor on the loading of equipments and local voltage is analyzed taking a typical distribution grid configuration into account. The requirements of network reinforcement measures are presented and quantified with reference to DSM saturation.

Kleemann, M.; Görner, K.; Rehtanz, C.:Concept and Requirements of a Simulator for Substation Automation Systems", IEEE PES Conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, Göteborg, Schweden, October 10–13, 2010

Increase of dispersed generation in medium-voltage-grids and lack of practical experience with new standards form dangerous impacts on current control- and protection functions that are part of substation automation systems. To overcome these problems a simulator proposed, that supports the development of new protection systems and provides practical training opportunities in terms of IEC 61850. Real secondary equipment forms a substation, while the subimposed process, the primary equipment of the substation and the ambient power system, is simulated with a real-time simulator. Amplifiers are coupled to the simulator and allow for the emulation of the secondary currents and voltages of instrument transformers at a maximum frequency of up to 20 kHz. Conclusively relevant fault scenarios including transients during earth faults can be simulated.

Krause, O.; Lehnhoff, S.; Rehtanz, C.:Linear Constraints for Remaining Transfer Capability Allocation", IEEE PES Conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, Göteborg, Sweden, October 10-13, 2010

A trend is emerging towards the activation of distribution networks, which have only been passive until now. The main purpose is to use the existing infrastructure more efficiently. Due to the vast number of low and medium voltage networks this can only be achieved with autonomous decentralized grid monitoring and usage management systems. The most sophisticated task is the autonomous determination of remaining transfer capability. The authors wish to contribute a novel approach for solving this problem based on the online approximation of operational constraints in the domain of complex nodal power.

Kreutz, S.; Belitz, H.-J.; Rehtanz, C.:The Impact of Demand Side Management on the Residual Load", IEEE PES Conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, Göteborg, Sweden, October 10-13, 2010

In this paper, the effect of a Demand Side Management (DSM) on the residual load in Germany is shown. The used Demand Side Management model is focused on controlling heat pumps, electrical vehicles and white goods. The aim is to analyze the use of DSM regarding the increasing fluctuating power feed-in which is a result of the growing renewable energy sources (e.g. wind turbines and photovoltaic installations). The target function of the used model is to plane the residual load curve. To evaluate the influence on the German system load, the residual load curve will be analyzed with two key parameters: the shift potential and the volatility change factor. The shift potential expresses the maximum, simultaneous reduction of the peak of the residual load curve. The volatility change factor describes the relation between the diversity of the maximum and the minimum power before and after using the DSM. The effectiveness of the DSM by the used model is estimated and the outstanding points are declared.

Dan, V.; Stepanescu, S.:Contributions to the Capitalization of the Hidroenergetic potential of the Jiu Valley", SIMPRO Conference, Petrosani, October 14-15, 2010, Romania

This paper presents some aspects about the hydro-energetic potential of the Jiu Valley. The treated subject is the development of the micro- and the pico-hydrosystems.

L‘Abbate, A.; Migliavacca, G.; Häger, U.; Rehtanz, C.; Rüberg, S.: Ferreira, H.; Fulli, G.; Purvins, A.:The Role of FACTS and HVDC in the Future Paneuropean Transmission System Development", 9th International Conference on AC and DC Power Transmission (ACDC 2010), IET, London, UK, October 20-21, 2010

The present paper focuses on FACTS (Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System) and HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) transmission technologies. Particular attention is paid to different specific technical, economic and environmental features of these power electronicsbased devices. Final aim of the paper is the investigation of the role that FACTS and HVDC may play towards the development of the future pan-European transmission system.

Plota, E.; Bolczek, M.; Greve, S.; Wiedemann, T.; Rehtanz, C.:Business Models for Electric Vehicles", 2nd European Conference SmartGrids and E-Mobility OTTISmart Grids and E-Mobility Conference", Brussels, Belgium, October 20-21, 2010

Business models for a mass market of electric vehicles include not only a sustainable concept of energy supply but also take into account the capability to provide flexibilities and ancillary services. In a future energy system, in which renewable energies will take over the majority of energy supply, these services may contribute to guarantee the reliability of supply. The utilization of the whole potential of electric vehicles requires an overall analysis of the interrelations between the energy sector and the ICT sector. New activities within these sectors might lead to new or extended business models. The methodology to elaborate potential business models will be presented in this paper. Starting point for identifying new activities is to develop an overall value chain for the e-Mobility Market. The allocation of activities to stakeholders, leads to different business models which are presented exemplary. The criteria for evaluating the potential business models will be introduced. For all business models it will be assumed that there are roaming concepts, meaning that each customer can use the e-Mobility Market infrastructure independent from his supplier with one contract.

Yang, D.; Rehtanz, C.; Li, Y.:Analysis of Low Frequency Oscillations Using Improved Hilbert-Huang Transform", Proceedings 2010 International Conference on Power System Technology, Hangzhou, China, October 24-28, 2010

As a non-linear and time-varying tool, Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) has been widely used to analyze Low Frequency Oscillation (LFO) signals in power systems. It utilizes Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) to decompose the LFO signals into a collection of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs), and then the instantaneous parameters including magnitude, frequency of every IMF can be calculated by applying the Hilbert Transform. However, HHT suffers from a number of shortcomings. In order to dispose the inherent problems of conventional HHT, an improved HHT is proposed based on Symmetrical Extrema Extension (SEE) method and frequency heterodyne technique. In this paper, SEE method is employed to expand the original signal during the processing of EMD and frequency heterodyne technique is used to overcome the modemixing phenomena. Next, the principle and influences of different shifting frequency factors are introduced. Based on these, the steps and flow chart of improved HHT are proposed. The results of testing signals and simulation model show that the improved HHT not only diminishes the influences of End Effect, but also expands the application of HHT. It is feasible and effective to overcome special mode-mixing problem.

Balabin, M.; Görner, K.; Li, Y.; Naumkin, I.; Rehtanz, C.:Evaluation of PMU Performance During Transients", IEEE-Powercon Conference, Hangzhou, China, October 24-28, 2010

The paper presents different test methods for PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) during transients in detail and shows practical results from tests of PMU from various vendors. The authors emphasize transients, because the measurement of stationary signals and their accuracy is already defined in IEEE C37.118. However, with the exception of step functions no dynamic signals are considered. The results are compared and advice is given for testing and evaluation of PMU measurement with dynamic signals

Li, Y.; Luo, L.F.; Rehtanz, C.; Xu, J.Z.; Yang, D.; Rüberg, S.:A Class of New HVDC Transmission Modes Improved by Inductive Filtering Method", IEEE-Powercon Conference, Hangzhou, China, October 24-28, 2010

Different from the existing main-circuit topologies of the HVDC converters, this paper presents a class of improved converter structures constructed by Inductive Filtering (IF) method, which can be used to further construct different HVDC transmission modes. Firstly, the basic operating principle and the technical characteristics of the IF method based HVDC converter is theoretically analyzed. Then, on the basis of the main-circuit topologies of the traditional line commutated converter (LCC), Capacitor Commutated Converter (CCC), Controlled Series Capacitor Converter (CSCC), and Voltage Source Converter (VSC), a class of new main-circuit topologies of the inductive filtering based HVDC converters, which are improved by the IF method, is proposed firstly in the paper. Furthermore, based on these pro-posed inductive filtering converters, three kinds of new HVDC transmission modes are further firstly proposed and the main-circuit topologies of these HVDC modes are also presented. Final-ly, the key technical characteristics of such three kinds of HVDC transmission modes will be compared. The research results show that the proposed new HVDC transmission modes represent a series of technical characteristics and superiorities, which is advantage to the stable and efficient operation of the modern HVDC transmission system.

Li, Y.; Rehtanz, C.; Görner, K.; Rüberg, S.: „Wide-Area Time-Delay Damping Control to Prevent Power Oscillations in HVDC/AC Interconnected Power Systems", IEEE-Powercon Conference, Hangzhou, China, October 24-28, 2010

In this paper, a robust high voltage direct-current (HVDC) wide-area time-delay damping control strategy is proposed to prevent the potential low-frequency power oscillation and enhance the power stability of HVDC/AC interconnected power systems. Firstly, the basic design concept and the related design flow are presented. Then, the general wide-area power system model with the time-delay characteristic is described by the linearization modeling method. The practical reduced- order algorithm is introduced to further obtain the reduced system state-space model that maintains the low-frequency oscillation mode. Furthermore, considering the inevitable time delay in the wide-area feedback control signals transmitted by the wide-area measurement system (WAMS), the improved linear matrix inequality (LMI) method is applied to design the robust supplementary damping controller associated to the HVDC converter pole-control. Such controller can efficiently suppress the negative effect of time delay of the wide-area control signals on the oscillation damping performance. In addition, the iterative algorithm is proposed to search the optimal overall gain matrix for the state feedback control, and the state observer is also designed based on the classic pole-placement method to realize the observability on the state variables of the reduced system. Finally, a case study on a benchmark system of small signal stability study is performed to validate the proposed HVDC wide-area time-delay damping control strategy.

Voropai, N.I.; Rehtanz, C.; Soukhanov, O.A.: „Coordinated Monitoring, Forecasting and Control in Interconnected Electric Power Grids", IEEE-Powercon Conference, Hangzhou, China, October 24-28, 2010

The trends in expansion of electric power systems (EPSs) and changes in the conditions of their operation have led to considerable transformations in their structure and operation. Joint operation of power interconnections of regions or countries within an extended super power interconnection, practical impossibility to visualize information on its current state, various principles of control and different software applied in different power interconnections, as well as confidentiality of some information make us apply distributed algorithms to process data on system state and develop control actions while improving and developing EPS control systems. Approaches unfolded further in the paper deals with the main ideas of advanced control technology for interconnected EPGs. These approaches serve as a basis for the international projec.t Intelligent coordination of operation and emergency control of EU and Russian power grids‖ (ICOEUR project), developed by the international consortium of organizations. The paper presents a short description of the project.

Hammerschmidt, T.; Linke, C.; Borchard, T.; Petermann, A.; Rehtanz, C.:Netze für die Stromversorgung der Zukunft / Grids for Future Electricity Supply", VDEKongress, Leipzig, 8.-9. November 2010

Um die Herausforderungen der zukünftigen Energieversorgung zu erfüllen, muss einerseits der Erzeugungs-Last-Ausgleich sichergestellt werden. Andererseits muss das Verteilnetz die erforderlichen Energieflüsse ermöglichen und dabei wirtschaftlich effizient sein. Während der Ausgleich von Erzeugung und Last bereits Gegenstand vieler Projekte ist, ist die Analyse eines anforderungsgerechten effizienten Verteilnetzes bisher noch kaum betrachtet und nicht Gegenstand in der öffentlichen Diskussion. Das vom Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi) geförderte Projekt „Netze für die Stromversorgung der Zukunft schließt diese Lücke durch die Entwicklung, Analyse und Bewertung von innovativen Netzkonzepten im Rahmen eines interdisziplinären Konsortiums bestehend aus der RWE Rheinland Westfalen Netz AG als Konsortialführerin, der ABB AG, der Consentec GmbH und der Technischen Universität Dortmund. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf dem Verteilnetz bis zum Kundenanschluss. Die Weiterentwicklung von Simulationstools und Betriebsmitteln wird ebenso beschrieben, wie der Praxistest der Ergebnisse in einem Demonstrations-Smart-Grid. Die Analysen zeigen, dass smarte Lösungen dazu beitragen werden bestehende Netzrestriktionen (z. B. Spannungsbandverletzungen) zu reduzieren und somit die Übertragungskapazitäten der Netzbetriebsmittel optimaler auszunutzen. Damit ergibt sich ein Smart Grid, das eine effiziente Lösung der Versorgungsaufgabe darstellt.

Rehtanz, C.; Rolink, J.:Bewertung des Einsatzes von Elektrofahrzeugen zur Erbringung von Netzdienstleistungen / Evaluation of the Application of Electric Vehicles for the Provision of Ancillary Services", VDE-Kongress, Leipzig, 8.-9. November 2010

Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit dem Thema Netzdienstleistungen und dem Beitrag, den Elektrofahrzeuge in diesem Zusammenhang leisten können. Der Fokus liegt dabei speziell auf dem Bereich der Regelreserve. Zum einen werden die relevantesten heutigen Rahmenbedingungen zur Erbringung von Regelleistungen dargelegt. Darauf basierend wird eine Abschätzung des technischen Potenzials von Elektrofahrzeugen anhand von detailliert beschriebenen Szenarien vorgenommen. Am Schluss des Beitrags erfolgt eine wirtschaftliche Bewertung der Ergebnisse unter Berücksichtigung der heutigen Preissituation des Regelleistungsmarktes.

König, D.; Laskowski, M.:Moderner Stromhandel für dezentrale Kleinsteinspeiser in einem intelligenten Stromnetz der Zukunft"; VDI-Fachkonferenz „KWK in Wohn- und Gewerbeobjekten", 08.-09. November 2010, Frankfurt

Die Einführung von Smart-Meter-Lösungen in Deutschland eröffnet insbesondere im Privat- und Gewerbekundensegment künftig neue Möglichkeiten der Verbraucherkommunikation und der Steigerung des Verbraucherbewusstseins. Mit beiden verknüpft sich die Hoffnung einer erhöhten Endenergieeffizienz. Im Rahmen des BMWi-Projektes E-Energy hat das E-DeMa Konsortium um RWE (Partner: RWE, Siemens, Hochschulen des Ruhr-gebiets, Stadtwerke Krefeld, Miele, ProSyst) ein Projekt initiiert, das die Möglichkeiten von heutigen Smart-Meter-Lösungen aufgreift und den Stromkunden zu einem aktiven Marktteilnehmer weiterentwickelt. Ziel des Projektes ist es, insgesamt beim Prosumer (Stromkunde als Produzent und Konsument) Voraussetzungen für einen effizienteren Umgang mit Energie zu schaffen.

Li, Y.; Rehtanz, C.; Yang, D. Häger, U.; Luo. L.; Lenonowicz, Z.:Wide-area measurement- based time-delay damping control of SSSC-type FACTS device for stability enhancement of power system", Electrical Review, ISSN 0033-2097, R. 86 NR 11a/November 2010

This paper presents a linear matrix inequality (LMI) method for the design of the wide-area timedelay damping (WATDD) controller of static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)-type flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) device to enhance the power stability of the interconnected power systems. Firstly, in order to reveal the single-input multi-output (SIMO) characteristic of the open-loop power system with SSSC-type FACTS device, the prediction error estimation (PEE) algorithm based system identification method is applied to fit a special SIMO linear model. Then, based on the robust control theory and LMI method, the identified linear model is formulated as the standard control problem with the time-delay of the input signals of the WATDD controller, and combined with the designed state observer for the input state variables of the WATDD controller, the control parameters are optimized by the LMI iterative solution algorithm. Finally, the nonlinear simulation on the typical 2-area 4-machine system installed with SSSC-type WATDD controller is performed to verify the LMI-based design method and the proposed SSSC-type WATDD controller.

Li, Y.; Rehtanz, C.; Yang, D.; Häger, U.; Luo. L.; Lenonowicz, Z.:Study on general harmonic equivalent circuit model for a class of new auto-inductive harmonicsuppression transformers", Electrical Review, ISSN 0033-2097, R. 86 NR 11a/ November 2010

For the demand of harmonic suppression and reactive power compensation of large-power electrical ac/dc power converter systems, this paper presents a class of new auto-inductive and harmonic- suppression (AIHS) transformers and a corresponding inductive filtering method, proposes a general model and its harmonic model constructed by the transformer windings and the fulltuned circuit under the specific harmonic frequencies, and establishes the harmonic equivalent circuit model. Based on this, according to the established mathematical model, this paper reveals the filtering mechanism of the new inductive filtering method, and obtains the necessary impedance condition for the new transformer and the tuned condition for the full-tuned circuit to suppress the main harmonic currents in the secondary windings. Furthermore, the influence of the impedance parameters on the inductive filtering effect is analysed. Finally, the experimental results verify the correctness of theoretical analysis, and present the good inductive filtering performance that the new transformer has.

Nguyen, H.P.; Kling, W.L.; Myrzik, J.M.A.:An application of the successive shortest path algorithm to manage power in multi-agent system based active networks." European Transactions on Electrical Power, November 2010

In order to handle a high penetration of distributed generation (DG), the existing passive distribution systems need to become more active. In the so-called active network (AN), power flow management has developed to cope with bidirectional power flow and the intermittence of DGs. This paper proposes a method to better manage active power flows based on graph theory application and multi-agent system (MAS). While the power system is represented as a directed graph, the optimal power flow (OPF) is understood as a minimum cost flow problem that can be solved by the successive shortest path algorithm. The algorithm is implemented in a distributed way and is supported by MAS. Simulations using a five sub-areas network show that the method is able to reach the optimal operation state while restraining power flows within defined bounds. Furthermore, the method can also response changes in power generation cost, network configuration and load demand increase.

El-Hadidy, A.; Rehtanz, C.:Blocking of Distance Relay Zone3 under Load Encroachment Conditions- A New approach Using Phasor Measurements Technique" Fourteenth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON‘10) Kairo, Egypt, December 19-21, 2010

Cascaded tripping of power lines due to mal-operation of zone 3 distance relays was one of the main causes of many previous blackouts worldwide. Encroachment of load into the zone 3 characteristics is one of the main cause for the mal-operation of the relays. By improving the operation of zone 3 of distance relays it is possible to prevent such mal-operations so that cascaded line tripping can be avoided. This paper proposes a new algorithm that utilizes Synchronized Phasor Measurements (SPM) to control the operation of distance protection zone 3. Based on the proposed algorithm, several improvements in operation of zone 3 can be achieved. For instance, the relay can differentiate between actual system faults and load encroachment. In addition to this, the tripping decision is not affected by the value of fault resistances from zero to High Impedance Faults (HIF). These improvements would in turn help prevent blackouts due to mal-operation of distance relay zone3.

2009

Rehtanz, C.; Horenkamp, W.:Smart Metering“, Euroforum-Verlag, 2009

 Vermittelt werden anhand von Beispielen verschiedene weiterführende Zusatzanwendungen von Smart Metering für den Netz- und Messstellenbetreiber, Messdienstleister, Energielieferanten sowie dem Endkunden. Schon bei der Planung von Smart Metering Systemen sind die Mehrwerte, neben den Standardanforderungen wie eine zeitnahe Abrechnung von Energie, flexible Tarife, etc. zu berücksichtigen.

Li, Y.; Luo, L. F.; He, D. J.; Rehtanz, C.; Liu, Z. H.; Liu, F. S.: „Analysis of Harmonic Distribution Characteristics of New DC Transmission System”, Automation of Electric Power Systems, Vol. 33, No. 10, May 2009, pp. 59-63

The research on the harmonic distribution characteristic of the HVDC transmission system is useful for analyzing the harmonic distribution in the electrical devices and the electrical system, and the harm of the harmonics on the electrical devices. This paper introduces a new HVDC circuit topology using the new converter transformer and inductive filtering technology. The mathematical calculation models of the harmonic characteristics is established for both the inductive and the passive filtering technology, and their effects of the HVDC harmonic characteristics is analyzed. Thereafter, the harmonic characteristics have been calculated, which shows that the inductive filtering can suppress the harmonic at the valve side and avoid the harm of the harmonic on the converter transformer that the traditional filtering has. The tested results verified the correctness of the analysis and calculated results.

Rolink, J.; Rehtanz, C.:Charging Systems for a Sustainable Integration of Electric Vehicles”, European Conference Smart Grids and Mobility, 16.-17. Juni 2009, Würzburg

There is a big advantage for plug-in hybrids (PHEV) and electric vehicles (EV). In comparison to fuel cell driven vehicles the basic infrastructure which is needed for charging already exists in form of the electric grid. Charging at home seems to be easily feasible but since the driving range of EVs is limited there will be a need in future for a public infrastructure to charge and bill the vehicles. In the following, various approaches for the integration of electric vehicles into the grid will be discussed. First of all an overview of the state-of-the-art will be given briefly. After that possible methods for charging and communication will be described. Eventually different billing concepts for public and private applications will be proposed.

Rehtanz, C.: „Innovative Technologien für künftige Stromnetze”, BWK Sonderheft 60 Jahre, 2009

Heute werden nur ca. 20% des Energiebedarfs durch elektrische Energie gedeckt. Für jegliche Effizienzbetrachtungen muss immer auch die Verschiebung zwischen den Energieträgern berücksichtigt werden. In einzelnen Bereichen wie z.B. der Elektromobilität kann durch eine Verschiebung von konventionellen Antrieben hin zur Elektrizität ein Effizienzgewinn und damit auch Umweltgewinn im Sinne einer verringerten CO2 Emission erzielt werden. Die CO2 Emission sinkt z.B. auf ca. 90 g CO2 / km bei Ladung von Elektrofahrzeugen bei einer Erzeugung mit dem deutschen Strommix. Ein weiteres Beispiel sind stromgespeiste Wärmepumpen zur Beheizung von Gebäuden, die bei geeigneten Bedingungen und zusammen mit einer guten Gebäudeisolation energie-effizient arbeiten. Beide Beispiele verdeutlichen eine Verschiebung der Energieverwendung hin zum Strom. Wenn man sich vor Augen führt, welche Energieträger langfristig zur Verfügung stehen, dann wird der elektrische Strom zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnen. Regenerative Energien wie Windenergie, Photovoltaik, solarthermische Kraftwerke werden in zunehmendem Maße die Abhängigkeit von fossilen Energieträgern ablösen und direkt Strom als Energieträger bereitstellen. Die Kernenergie oder langfristig auch die Kernfusion zielen in dieselbe Richtung. Der flexiblen Verwendbarkeit und leichten Umwandelbarkeit des elektrischen Stroms steht jedoch der Nachteil der geringen oder nicht effizienten Speicherbarkeit entgegen. Darüber hinaus muss auch ein effizientes Netz zur Verfügung stehen.

Osthues, M.; Waniek, D.; Rehtanz, C.:Simulation of transnational energy trade”, IEEE-PES - International Workshop „Liberalization and Modernization of Power Systems: Coordinated Monitoring and Control towards Smart Grids”, Siberian Energy Institute, Irkutsk, Russia, 13.-17. Juli 2009

Already today, the transnational energy trade has led to congestions in the cross-border lines of the European grid. As a result, the available transfer capacities are allocated to the market participants within the scope of the congestion management method. In order to utilize the limited capacity, so-called market coupling was introduced to the energy markets in France, Belgium and the Netherlands in 2006. Market Coupling enables the concomitant implementation of capacity allocation with the commercial transaction. With the planned expansion to include Germany and Luxembourg in 2009, the allocation of transmission capacities will be enhanced by introducing a flow-based model. In this paper the planned introduction of the flow-based market coupling is simulated. A combined network and market model provides the required data to perform market coupling. Above all, the analysis of the simulation results should provide statements about the illustration of the physical load flow in the market coupling.

Lehnhoff, S.; Häger, U.; Krause, O.; Wedde, H.F.; Rehtanz, C.:Towards Autonomous Distributed Coordination of Fast Power Flow Controllers in Transmission Net-works”. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Liberalization and Modernization of Power Systems: Coordinated Monitoring and Control towards Smart Grids, IEEE Press, Irkutsk, Russia, 2009-07-17

The liberalization of the power market, an overall increase in power demand and the integration of high capacity unpredictable renewable resources (e.g. wind power) pose a challenge to transmission network operators that have to guarantee a stable and efficient operating of the grid. A way to improve the stability and efficiency of the existing network – aside from expensive reconstruction – is the integration of fast power flow controllers in order to dynamically redirect power flows away from critically loaded resources that may be threatened by an overload. In this paper we outline our current work in progress on developing a multi-agent model that allows for an autonomous distributed coordination of fast power flow controllers without the need for global information.

Krause, O.; Schwippe, J.; Rehtanz, C.:Probabilistic Load Flow for Uncertainty Based Grid Operation”, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Liberalization and Modernization of Power Systems (LMPS’09), Irkutsk, Russia, 2009

Traditional algorithms used in grid operation and planning only evaluate one deterministic state. Uncertainties introduced by the increasing utilization of renewable energy sources have to be dealt with when determining the operational state of a grid. From this perspective the probability of certain operational states and of possible bottlenecks is important information to support the grid operator or planner in their daily work. From this special need the field of application for Probabilistic Load Flow methods evolved. Uncertain influences like power plant outages, deviations from the forecasted injected wind power and load have to be considered by their corresponding probability. With the help of probability density functions an integrated consideration of the partly stochastic behavior of power plants und loads is possible.

Stepanescu, S.; Horenkamp, W.; Waniek, D.; Rehtanz, C.:Frequency control in a multiarea system”, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Liberalization and Modernization of Power Systems (LMPS’09), Irkutsk, Russia, 2009

This paper deals with automatic generation control of an interconnected power system. This system consists of thermal and hydro power plants. Two different investigated systems are studied as interconnected power systems. The systems have the following implemented control concepts for frequency: a) the control signals are added and applied to the two PI controllers; b) the control signals are added and send to one PI controller; c) the signals are applied to the PI controllers and the output of these controllers are added and applied to the power system. The obtained results show that the frequency behavior is normal for all these regarded concepts.

Görner, K.; Rehtanz, C.:A Testing Procedure with Transient Signals for PMU”, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Liberalization and Modernization of Power Systems (LMPS’09), Irkutsk, Russia, 2009

With the deployment of PMU also specific applications are under development. Currently there exist no standards for transients concerning PMU. In this paper the authors describe a new testing procedure for synchronized Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) for transient dynamics in order to evaluate their performance for specific PMU based applications. To obtain a reference for the phasors from the PMU a benchmark algorithm will be introduced. Following in two examples for transient signals the authors describe the evaluation of the performance of three commercial PMU.

Voropai, N. I.; Efimov, D. N.; Popov, D. B.; Rehtanz, C.; Häger U.:Development of Selective Automatic Systems for Prevention and Elimination of Out-of-Step Operation using PMU”, CIGRE Workshop „Actual Trends in Development of Power Sys-tem Protection and Automation”, Moskau, Russia, 7.-10. Sep. 2009

The paper deals with the development of selective automatic systems intended to prevent and eliminate out-of-step operation on the basis of synchronized voltage phase measurements obtained from Phasor Measurement Units. The operation criteria and principles of the selective out-of-step protection and prevention systems (SOSPPS) are presented. The efficiency of automatic system operation is demonstrated on the test electric power system.

Li, Y.; Luo, L. F.; Rehtanz, C.; Nakamura, K.; Xu, J. Z.; Liu, F. S.:Study on Characteristic Parameters of a New Converter Transformer for HVDC Systems”. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.24, No.4, October 2009, pp. 2125-2131

Different from the traditional converter transformer and ac passive filtering method, this paper presents a new converter transformer and a corresponding inductive filtering method for HVDC systems. Based on this, characteristic parameters of the new converter transformer are studied in detail by theoretical analysis, simulation, calculation, and experimental verification. By deducing voltage relation, the constraint condition of the turn ratio is obtained, which can satisfy the demand of a 12-pulse converter in HVDC systems. By deducing current relations, the characteristics of the fundamental and the harmonic currents in the winding are obtained. According to the established operation equations, the simple but practical calculation methods for the short-circuit impedance and the rated capacity are proposed. Then, the change characteristic of the short-circuit impedance is analyzed and calculated. The detailed simulation and test results verified the correctness of the aforementioned theoretical analysis and calculation.

Rehtanz, C.; Wietfeld, C.:Das Internet der Energie - Trends in der Automatisierung von Energienetzen”, Zeitschrift at - Automatiseriungstechnik, Oldenburg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2009

Die Nutzung des Internets und Web-basierter Techniken in der elektrischen Energietechnik eröffnet viele Chancen für eine Optimierung des Betriebs von verteilten Energiesystemen. Für einen flächendeckenden Einsatz sind jedoch besondere Anforderungen hinsichtlich der Zuverlässigkeit, Ressourceneffizienz, Echtzeitfähigkeit und Sicherheit zu erfüllen. Der Beitrag fasst zunächst den relevanten Stand der Technik im Bereich Internet/Web zusammen und stellt aktuelle Entwicklung zu Software-Plattformen zur Unterstützung von Web Services für eingebettete Systeme vor, um auf dieser Basis konkrete Szenarien für eine Internetbasierte Vernetzung von Verbrauchern und Energienetzen vergleichend zu diskutieren. Der Autor greift dabei Erfahrungen auf, die u.a. im Rahmen des EU-Forschungsprojektes MORE sowie durch die enge Kooperation mit energie-technisch orientierten Lehrstühlen der Universität Dortmund und im Energieforschungsverbund ef.Ruhr gewonnen wurden.

Li, Y.; Luo, L. F.; Rehtanz, C.; Yang, D. C.; Xu, J. Z.; Liu, F. S.: „A New Voltage Source Inductive Filtering Converter (VSIFC) and Its Application Feasibility in HVDC Light Systems”, Proceedings of 2009 Chinese Doctoral Conference on AC/DC Transmission Technology and Theory, Changsha, China, October 2009

Different from the existing Voltage Source Converter (VSC), this paper proposes a new Voltage Source based Inductive Filtering Converter (VSIFC) with the application of inductive filtering technology. The VSIFC adopts inductive filtering transformer and the related full-tuned filters to replace the traditional commutating reactor or/and transformer and the high pass damping filters, which makes the new VSIFC with the obvious integrated design and installation characteristics. This paper analyzed the technical feasibility on the application of VSIFC into the HVDC Light, and established a typical VSIFC based HVDC Light test system. Based on this, the filtering characteristic and transient stability of the VSIFC-HVDC systems have been studied in the PSCAD/EMTDC environment. By contrast with the traditional HVDC Light, the series of technical characteristics and superiors of the VSIFC-HVDC have been revealed, and the technical feasibility and validity of the VSIFC-HVDC have been verified.

Yang, D.; Li, Y.; Rehtanz, C.; Luo, L.:Researching of Filtering Characteristic in New VSC-HVDC System Based on Inductive Filtering Technology”, Proceedings of 2009 Chinese Doctoral Conference on AC/DC Transmission Technology and Theory. Changsha, China. 23-26, October, 2009

VSC-HVDC has been widely used in the power transmission system based on the fast and flexible controlling characteristic. The inductive filtering technology which uses the winding ampere turn’s balance as the filtering and with the special advantages in CSC-HVDC system has been caused extending attentions in power system. This paper describes the basic principle, connection and realization characteristic of the inductive filtering technology, and then set up the model of the VSC-HVDC with new converter transformer. The simulation analysis shows that new model is better than traditional VSC-HVDC in reducing the harmonic and improve the current curve in the AC grid.

Yang, D.; Li, Y.; Rehtanz, C.; Liu, Z.; Luo, L.: „Study on the Structure and the Development Planning of Smart Grids in China”, Power System Technology 2009 33(20) 13-20 (in Chinese) 

The research on the smart grid is very significant in energy conservation and economical operation of power systems. In this paper, the current situation of power system in China and the definition of smart grid are presented in brief. Then, the effects of the influences of smart grid on the constituents of power grids in China, including power generation, transmission and utilization, load composition, construction of substations and dispatching system and so on, are analyzed in detail. On this basis, the fundamental conditions, development thinking and requirements for the selection of experimental cities are pointed out. Finally, the preliminary medium-term and perspective structural diagrams for Chinese style of smart grids are given.

Rehtanz, C.; Gwisdorf, B.; Laskowski, M.:Bewertung des Einsatzpotentials eines assetbezogenen Virtuellen Kraftwerks”, VDE ETG-Kongress 2009 “Intelligente Netze”, Düsseldorf, 27.-28.10.2009.

„Beim Betrieb eines assetbezogenen Virtuellen Kraftwerks werden dezentrale Energieumwandlungsanlagen nach dem Prinzip des Peak-Shaving so geregelt, dass Lastspitzen durch die lastnahe Einspeisung elektrischer Leistung in bestimmten Fällen in ihrer Amplitude minimiert werden. Dies führt zu einer Minderung der Belastung überlagerter Betriebsmittel, sodass diese geringer dimensioniert und Netzausbaumaßnahmen vermieden bzw. verzögert werden können.“

Rehtanz, C.; Worgull, A.; Horenkamp, W.:Smart Metering Technologien für den flächendeckenden Einsatz in Virtuellen Kraftwerken”, VDE ETG-Kongress 2009 “Intelligente Netze”, Düsseldorf, 27.-28.10.2009.

„Durch die rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen in der Energiewirtschaft ist mit einem wachsenden Anteil von dezentralen Energieumwandlungsanlagen in den Verteilungsnetzen zu rechnen. Für Netzbetreiber ergeben sich durch die Verwendung von Smart Metering Systemen vielseitige Nutzungsmöglichkeiten, die eine Steigerung der Energieeffizienz im Versorgungssystem ermöglichen. Durch die Zusammenfassung von dezentralen Energieumwandlungsanlagen und Lasten zu einem Virtuellen Kraftwerk lässt sich ein aktives Energiemanagement umsetzen.“

Rehtanz, C.; Worgull, A.; Horenkamp, W.:Smart Metering Technologien: Mehrwert durch Standardisierung der Zähler und Kommunikationsstrukturen der “letzten Meile””, VDE ETG-Kongress 2009 “Intelligente Netze”, Düsseldorf 27.-28.10.2009.

„Smart Metering stellt im Zusammenhang mit der Liberalisierung der Energieversorgung und des Messwesens eine Schlüsselfunktion dar. Auf Netzbetreiber, Energiedienstleister sowie Messstellenbetreiber und Messdienstleister kommen neue Aufgaben im Zusammenhang mit der Messung und Abrechnung der Energie zu. Die nicht exakt vorgegebenen Anforderungen, insbesondere an die informationstechnische Vernetzung der Smart Meter, stellen in Deutschland ein Hemmnis für die flächendeckende Einführung von Smart Metering Systemen dar.“

Görner, K.; Rehtanz, C.:Bestimmung dynamischer Netzvorgänge mit PMU”, VDE ETG-Kongress 2009 “Intelligente Netze”, Düsseldorf, 27.-28.10.2009.

The Institute of Power Systems and Power Economics of the TU Dortmund examines characteristics of time synchronized Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) under dynamic conditions. Basing on dynamic conditions theoretical test signals especially transients are being determined in order to evaluate the accuracy of the measurement using several methods.

Rehtanz, C.; Rolink, J.:Rahmenbedingungen zum Lastmanagement von Plug-In Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeugen”, VDE-ETG-Kongress, Düsseldorf, 27.-28.10.2009

Durch die Einbindung mobiler Speicher (Elektrofahrzeuge, Plug-In Hybridfahrzeuge) in intelligente Netze wird die Voraussetzung geschaffen, die zusätzlichen Lasten, die durch die Ladung der Fahrzeuge am Netz zu erwarten sind, im Sinne eines sicheren Betriebes durch ein netzseitiges Lademanagement zu beeinflussen. Damit wird die Möglichkeit geschaffen, Ladeengpässe sowie Netzausbauten zu vermeiden. Ferner bietet sich die Möglichkeit, die Fahrzeuge zur gezielten Speicherung elektrischer Energie, z. B. von Windenergie in den Nachtstunden, zu nutzen. Entscheidend für einen Betrieb mobiler Speicher als Bestandteil intelligenter Netze ist auf der einen Seite die Wahl des Lade- und Kommunikationskonzeptes und auf der anderen das Mobilitätsverhalten der Fahrzeuge.

Achleitner, G.; Fickert, L.; Rehtanz, C.:Koordination von Weitbereichsschutz und lokalem Schutz”, VDE-ETG-Kongress, Düsseldorf, 27.-28.10.2009

Weitbereichsmesssysteme (WAMS) bieten die Möglichkeit, schnelle Vorgänge in Netzen zu überwachen, Probleme zu erkennen und Maßnahmen zu setzen. In dieser Veröffentlichung werden Untersuchungen zur Koordination von Weitbereichsschutz und lokalen Schutzgeräten präsentiert. Der Bereich der Reaktionszeit eines Weitbereichsschutzsystems befindet sich zwischen dem lokalen Schutz (Millisekunden) und dem Leitsystem (mehrere Sekunden). Es wird versucht mittels Weitbereichsmesssystemen Maßnahmen koordiniert und zeitnah durchzuführen, um auftretende Probleme rasch in den Griff zu bekommen. Die Untersuchungen zeigen, dass die Maßnahmen rasch, jedoch nicht zu rasch erfolgen dürfen. Sollte es zu einem Fehler in einem Netz kommen, wird dieser sowohl vom Schutzgerät als auch vom WAMS erkannt. Bei zu raschem Eingreifen des WAMS kann es zu einer Interaktion zwischen dem Schutz und des WAMS kommen. Dadurch können Kettenreaktionen ausgelöst werden, die zum Zusammenbrechen des Netzes führen. In dieser Publikation wird gezeigt, welche Zeitbereiche eingehalten werden sollen, um eine gute Zusammenarbeit zu ermöglichen.

Krause, O.; Lehnhoff, S.; Handschin, E.; Rehtanz, C.; Wedde, H.F.:On Feasibility Boundaries of Electrical Power Grids in Steady State” (invited Paper), International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems (2009), doi: 10.1016/ j.ijepes.2009.02.004

Both the coordination of international energy transfer and the integration of a rapidly growing number of decentralized energy resources (DER) throughout most countries cause novel problems for avoiding voltage band violations and line overloads. Traditional approaches are typically based on global off-line scheduling under globally available information and rely on iterative procedures that can guarantee neither convergence nor execution time. In this paper we focus on stability problems in power grids based on widely dispersed (renewable) energy sources. We introduce an extension to the DEZENT algorithm, a multi-agent based coordination system for DER, that allows for the feasibility verification in constant and predetermined time. We give a numerical example showing the legitimacy of our approach and mention ongoing and future work regarding its implementation and utilization.

Waniek, D.; Bolczek, M.; Rehtanz, C.; and Handschin, E.:Modeling of the Operating Reserve Market Based on the Theory of Industrial Organization” in Proc. 6th International Conference on the European Energy Market, Leuven, Belgien, 2009.

The adequacy of the design of operating reserve markets is essential to realize low tariffs for the customers. Due to the two-stage auctioning, an appropriate model is necessary to analyze the decision problem of the market players. Based on simplified assumptions, the presented concept is transferred to a sample market structure in order to derive the market behavior and the results. The model shows that because of the stochastic call of operating reserves arbitrarily high equilibriums for the energy bids are possible in theory. The market design with independent capacity and energy auctions cannot lead to prices near to the marginal costs.

Häger, U.; Rehtanz, C.:Defense Plan against Loss of Synchronism in Interconnected Power Systems”, Proc. IEEE PowerTech Conference, Bukarest, Rumänien, 2009

A new out-of-step protection system for transmission corridors in interconnected power systems. A defense plan analyzes voltage phasors measured at different network locations to determine the security state of the transmission corridor. If a disturbed state is detected, the protection system separates the network parts connected by corridor to avoid synchronous machines falling out of step due to the divagating of the voltage phasors. Exemplary simulations are shown to compare the defense plan with conventional protection systems based on distance protection relays.

Waniek, D.; Rehtanz, C.; and Handschin, E.:Analysis of Market Coupling Based on a Combined Network and Market Model”, in Proc. IEEE PowerTech, Bukarest, Rumänien, 2009.

In this paper the possible implementation and the efficiency of multilateral market coupling are evaluated. Market coupling is known as the cooperation of power exchanges and other market players in order to utilize the limited capacity of a meshed electricity transmission system in an efficient way. Based on a three-part combined network and market model of the Central Western European region, the congestion management is simulated and possible alternatives in the different steps of the practical execution are compared to each other. The results are rated from an economic and technical point of view in terms of system-wide welfare as well as utilization and security of the congested lines.

Schwippe, J.; Krause, O.; Rehtanz, C.:Probabilistic Load Flow Calculation Based on an Enhanced Convolution Technique”, Proceedings of the IEEE PES PowerTech 2009, Bukarest, Rumänien, 2009.

The increasing uncertainties grid operators have to face in their everyday work lead to the necessity for fast and accurate information about the probability of certain operational states of the operated network. Algorithms traditionally used in grid operation and planning are only able to evaluate discrete operational states of the particular power grid. A consideration and integration of probabilistic data can only be done by the analysis of selected discrete states followed by an interpolation. The algorithm presented in this paper falls into the category of Probabilistic Load Flow Calculation with a new approach for the modeling of the underlying network, as well as measures to reduce the inaccuracy introduced by linearization. Aspects like accuracy and calculation time in comparison to existing approaches are covered in detail.

Schwippe, J.; Krause, O.; Rehtanz, C.:Entwicklung und Beurteilung von Verfahren zur probabilistischen Lastflussrechnung“, First Power and Energy Summer Summit 2009, IEEE Studentbranch , IEEE Press, Ilmenau, Germany

Steigende Unsicherheiten stellen neue Anforderungen an die Netzplanung und –betrieb. Für effiziente Netze ist ein umfassendes Bild von möglichen Netzzuständen notwendig. Mit klassischen Netzberechnungsverfahren kann nur ein diskreter Zustand berechnet werden. Die probabilistische Lastflussrechnung bietet die Möglichkeit statistische Eigenschaften der Einspeiser/Lasten zu berücksichtigen. In diesem Dokument wird ein Verfahren zur probabilistischen Lastflussrechnung mit einer neuartigen Linearisierung des Netzes zur Steigerung der Genauigkeit vorgestellt und mit bestehenden Verfahren verglichen. Mögliche Anwendungsfälle und Vorteile gegenüber klassischer Netzplanung werden vorgestellt.

Schwippe, J.; Krause, O.; Rehtanz, C.:Extension of a Probabilistic Load Flow Calculation Based on an Enhanced Convolution Technique”, Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Sustainable Alternative Energy (SAE 2009), IEEE Press, Valencia, Spain

Traditional algorithms used in grid operation and planning only evaluate one deterministic state. Uncertainties introduced by the increasing utilization of renewable energy sources have to be dealt with when determining the operational state of a grid. From this perspective the probability of certain operational states and of possible bottlenecks is important information to support the grid operator or planner in their daily work. From this special need the field of application for Probabilistic Load Flow methods evolved. Uncertain influences like power plant outages, deviations from the forecasted injected wind power and load have to be considered by their corresponding probability. With the help of probability density functions an integrated consideration of the partly stochastic behavior of power plants und loads is possible. In this context an extension to a convolution based probabilistic load flow is present in this paper. The extension reduces the already limited inaccuracy introduced by network model simplifications. Aspects like accuracy improvement and computation time in comparison to existing method are covered in detail.

Bettzüge, M.O.; Nüßler, A.; Rehtanz, C.; Waniek, D.:Bewertung von Netzengpässen anhand einer Modellierung des Energiemarktes und des Übertragungsnetzes“ in Tagungsband 8. VDI-Fachtagung: Optimierung in der Energiewirtschaft, Ludwigsburg, 2009.

Der Fokus dieser Arbeit liegt in der Betrachtung von Strom-, Gas- und Wärmenetzen, die durch den Einsatz von dezentralen Energieumwandlungsanlagen miteinander gekoppelt sind. Das Ziel ist die kostenminimale Auslegung und Dimensionierung der Leitungen unter Berücksichtigung der Abnehmernachfrage im Betrachtungszeitraum. Durch die zu treffenden Designentscheidungen sowie die detaillierte Beschreibung der Flussdynamiken in den einzelnen Netzen ergibt sich ein gemischt-ganzzahliges, nichtlineares Optimierungsproblem. Im Anschluss an die Beschreibung der Modellierung aus technischer und mathematischer Sicht und einer kurzen Vorstellung des verwendeten Optimierungsverfahrens werden erste numerische Ergebnisse dieser Untersuchungen an einem gekoppelten Testnetz präsentiert.

Bertram, T.; Frei, S.; Kulig, S.; Rehtanz, C.; Wietfeld, C.:Elektromobilität-Systementwurf und Modellbildung“ Jahresmagazin Ingenieurwissenschaften in Deutschland „Zukunft und Faszination der Elektro- und Informationstechnik“ Verlag Alpha GmbH, Lampertheim, 2009

Die kommende Elektromobilität wird das Auto und die Automobilindustrie erheblich veränder. Erfolgreiche Produkte für Elektrofahrzeuge erfordern vollkommen neue Kompetenzen und pas-sende Rahmenbedingungen für Entwicklung und Erprobung. Besonders im Bereich der Antriebs- und Ladetechnologie wird Neuland betreten. Das Fahrzeug, das bislang nur in Ausnahmefällen mit der Umwelt kommunizieren musste, benötigt neue Schnittstellen für das Lademanagement und die Abrechnung mit dem Energieversorger. Die Antriebe und die dazugehörige Ansteuerung müssen unter den extremen Anforderungen im elektrischen Kraftfahrzeug mit der gewohnten hohen Zuverlässigkeit konventioneller Antriebe funktionieren. Für die Energieversorger stellt sich das Problem, hohe Leistungen für akzeptable Ladezeiten flachendeckend zur Verfügung zu stellen. Die Fahrzeuge müssen als zusätzliche Verbraucher aber auch als Energiespeicher in vorhandene Strukturen integriert werden oder es ist eine neue Infrastruktur zu schaffen. In allen Fällen sind umfangreiche Sicherheits- und Elektromagnetische -Verträglichkeit-Aspekte (EMV) zu beachten, und auch dafür müssen neue Konzepte entwickelt werden. 

2008

Wedde, H; Lehnhoff S.; Moritz K., Handschin, E.; Krause, O.:Distributed Learning Strategies for Collaborative Agents in Adaptive Decentralized Power Systems: Proc. of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Computer-Based Systems, IEEE Press, Belfast, Northern Ireland, 31.03.2008

For regenerative electric power the traditional top down and long-term power management is obsolete, due to the wide dispersion and high unpredictability of wind and solar based power facilities. In the R&D DEZENT1 project we developed a multi-level bottom up solution where autonomous software agents negotiate available energy quantities and needs on behalf of consumers and producer groups. We operate within very short time intervals of assumedly constant demand and supply, in our case 0.5 sec (switching delay for a light bulb). We prove security against a relevant variety of malicious attacks. In this paper the main contribution is to make the negotiation strategies themselves adaptive across periods. We adapted a Reinforcement Learning approach for defining and discussing learning strategies for collaborative autonomous agents that are clearly superior to previous (static) procedures. We report briefly on extensive comparative simulation.

Rehtanz, C.; Häger, U.: "Coordinated Wide Area Control of FACTS for Congestion Management", 3rd Int. Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT 2008), Panel Session, Nanjing, China, 6.- 9.4.2008

This paper presents an approach to evaluate the benefits of a coordinated operation of fast power flow controllers (PFCs) for congestion management. A dynamic modeling of the coordination by use of generic rules is introduced together with a simplified congestion corridor. Simulations are performed to show the dynamic behavior of the PFCs at outage situations. The following increase of transmission capability in comparison to an uncoordinated operation is determined with respect to (n-1)-security.

Krause, O.; Zhao, K.; Rehtanz, C.; Handschin, E.; Lehnhoff, S.; Wedde, H. F.: "Grid Sensitivity Analysis for Coordinated Voltage Control", 3rd Int. Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT 2008), Nanjing, China, 6.-9.4.2008

The increasing integration of controllable energy resources into distribution networks introduces novel challenges and opportunities in terms of distributed voltage control. As these devices are mainly controlling their active power injection, and do not provide voltage control capabilities, a regional coordinator has to determine favorable combinations of power injections and consumption with respect to the voltage profile of the particular network segment. The main challenge is to approximate voltage profiles from the complex nodal power balance of all nodes in a particular network. Standard algorithms calculate exact voltage profiles from combinations of complex nodal net power, but fail to provide information about the network conditions in the surrounding of this particular point of operation. In this paper we present a novel approach basing on the geometrical interpretation of a modified nodal admittance matrix. It allows for the determination of combinations of power injections in the surrounding of a point of operation that have a similar corresponding voltage profiles. Our approach takes into account reactive as well as active power injections.

Liu, Q.; Zhou, C.; Ängquist, L.; Rehtanz, C.: "A Novel Active Damping Control of TCSC for SSR Suppression in a Radial Corridor", 3rd Int. Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT 2008), Nanjing, China, 6.-9.4.2008

One of the favorite features of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors (TCSCs) is to provide inherent passive damping in suppressing torsional interaction (TI), which can cause the fatigue of turbine shaft or even damage. The power system can be highly exposed to such risks in the scenario where a thermal power plant is connected to a remote load center through a series compensated radial transfer corridor. This paper will use a real example to illustrate the TCSC capability under two different modulation strategies, constant firing angle control and Synchronous Voltage Reversal (SVR). Then based on SVR strategy, a novel control strategy using pure local measurement is proposed to inject additive damping guaranteeing the system to be SSR free, regardless the trivial contribution of mechanical torque. The paper is organized as follows. Firstly, the operation mechanism of TCSC and two different firing strategies are briefly introduced. Furthermore, a test signal technique based on complex torque is used to scan electrical damping under subsynchronous frequency range through detailed electromagnetic transient simulation. Frequency scanning results show that SVR strategies can contribute with a much better performance than constant firing angle control, and damp the risk modes even under low boost level. Thus a novel active damping control scheme can be easily implemented to pull the remaining slight undamping into a secure range. Simulation results with detailed shaft springmass model validate its control effect.

Li, Y.; Luo, L; Nakamura, K.; Rehtanz, C.; Zhang, J.; Xu, J.; Liu, F.: "Transient response characteristics of new HVDC transmission system based on new converter transformer", 3rd Int. Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT 2008), Nanjing, China, 6.-9.4.2008

The new HVDC transmission system adopts the new converter transformer and the corresponding inductive filtering method, and its electrical topology structure is completely different from that of the existential HVDC transmission system. For the change of the controlled system, the transient response characteristics of the new HVDC transmission system will be accordingly changed when it adopts the standard control model that the traditional HVDC transmission system adopts. Referring to the parameters of the main circuit of the CIGRE HVDC first benchmark model, this paper designs a similar benchmark model of the new HVDC transmission system based on the technical characteristics of the new converter transformer and the corresponding inductive filtering method, which mainly contains the rated parameters of the new converter transformer and the inductive filtering device. Then, the typical transient response characteristics of the new HVDC transmission system have been analyzed and simulated by PSCAD/EMTDC. The results express that the new HVDC transmission system, which adopts the standard control model that the HVDC transmission engineering adopts, has a good transient response characteristic, and can operate stably when subjecting to various typical disturbance.

Schulz, W.; Rehtanz, C.; Handschin, E.: "Auswirkungen der Windstromeinspeisung auf den deutschen Stromgroßhandelsmarkt", Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen, 58. Jg, Heft 6, S. 54-60, Juni 2008

Der deutsche Gesetzgeber schreibt für die Integration von erneuerbaren Energien einen komplexen Wälzungsmechanismus vor. Die Abwicklung dieses Mechanismus hat einen nachhaltigen Einfluss auf den Stromgroßhandel, welcher sich in seiner Wirkungsweise deutlich vom freien Wettbewerb der Energieerzeuger auf dem Markt unterscheidet. Die folgende grundsätzliche Analyse zeigt die detaillierten Auswirkungen der neuen Regelungen auf und macht deutlich, dass weitere Marktanpassungen erforderlich sind.

Handschin, E.; Jürgens, I.; Neumann, C.; Rehtanz, C.: "Long Term Optimization for Risk Oriented Asset Management", 16th Power Systems Computation Conference, PSCC 2008, Glasgow, Scotland, 14.-18. Juli 2008

The Risk Oriented Asset Management is a modern strategy for renewing and maintaining electric power systems. In this paper, a new approach is presented, which allows the parameterization of a risk model by the two parameters “outage costs” and “probability of failure”. In a second step, these parameters are used for the implementation of an optimization model. It determines the most economic planning of measures for a long term time period. Furthermore, an approach for an objective budget fixing for maintenance and renewal measures is presented. Both approaches are applied on a group of HV.

Handschin, E.; Rehtanz, C.; Wedde, H. F.; Krause, O.; Lehnhoff, S.: "On-line Stable State Determination in Decentralized Power Grid Management", 16th Power Systems Computation Conference, PSCC 2008, Glasgow, Scotland, 14.-18. Juli 2008

Both the coordination of international energy transfer and the integration of a rapidly growing number of decentralized energy resources (DER) throughout most countries causes novel problems for avoiding voltage band violations and line overloads. Traditional approaches are typically based on global off-line scheduling under globally available information and rely on iterative procedures that can guarantee neither convergence nor execution time. In this paper we focus on stability problems in power grids based on widely dispersed (renewable) energy sources. In this paper we will introduce an extension of the DEZENT algorithm, a multi-agent based coordination system for DER, that allows for the feasibility verification in constant and predetermined time. We give a numerical example showing the legitimacy of our approach and mention ongoing and future work regarding the implementation and utilization.

Waniek, D.; Schulz, W.; Rehtanz, C.; Handschin, E.: "Strategies for Efficient Integration of Wind Energy into Electricity Markets", 16th Power Systems Computation Conference, PSCC 2008, Glasgow, Scotland, 14.-18. Juli 2008

The increasing installed wind capacity in numerous countries requires innovative integration strategies to carry out the designated trend in line with market standards. In Germany, the Renewable Energies Act appoints a primacy of the wind infeed and defines a complex integration process. The execution of this process is obliged to the transmission system operators leading to high auxiliary costs. A possible alternative to the German integration concept is an autonomous participation especially of large offshore wind parks in the electricity market. In this article both concepts are analyzed from a technical and economical point of view. The evaluation is based on statistical models for the wind infeed, generation and load as well as the market price. The presented approach can be carried over to any power system while the German system is used here as an example.

Voropai, N.I.; Efimov, D.N.; Etingov, P.V.; Handschin, E.; Rehtanz, C.: "Advanced Tools in Emergency Control Systems", 16th Power Systems Computation Conference, PSCC 2008, Glasgow, Scotland, 14.-18. Juli 2008

The paper provides a survey of researches carried out by the authors in the field of modern information technologies and technical tools applied to enhance the efficiency of power system emergency control. Consideration is given to different aspects of the problem, including the methods of power system state estimation and visualization, automatic control based on artificial intelligence and to application of flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) and wide area measurement system (WAMS) technologies.

Waniek, D.; Häger, U.; Rehtanz, C.; Handschin, E.: "Influences of Wind Energy on the Operation of Transmission Systems", IEEE PES General Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 20.-24. Juli 2008

 In this work the impact of wind energy on the power flow is analyzed. After the development of a reduced sample network, possible network congestions are identified and the costs for the required redispatch of the generation are evaluated. To avoid or reduce the probability of congestions, different network upgrades can be installed. The efficiency of additional lines and power flow controlling devices is discussed on the basis of power flow calculations and dynamic simulations.

Wedde, H.F.; Lehnhoff, S.; Rehtanz, C.; Krause, O.: "Distributed Embedded Real- Time Systems and Beyond: A Vision of Future Road Vehicle Management", 34th Euromicor Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), Parma, Italien, 3.-5. Sept. 2008

This paper presents a technical vision for future individual traffic. It deals with two different objectives: passenger cars or motorcycles as battery-driven Electric Vehicles (EVs) and traffic congestion avoidance. On the technical background of our own work we will explain how power supply for recharging the batteries will have to be organized in a distributed fashion, in particular under the assumption that the power is provided through renewable sources such as from wind turbines and solar panels (which are widely dispersed themselves). We will argue that while the unpredictability of local or regional customers in traditional power grid management creates already major problems for net-work stability (thus for providing the reserve energy needed) these will be greatly amplified by introducing EVs on a large scale, and by integrating renewable energy into the existing power management. In our DEZENT1 project we have de-fined broadly pursued a distributed bottom-up approach for negotiating demand and supply under such circumstances, in an adequate architecture where demand and supply will be negotiated by software agents within 0.5 sec intervals while at the same time the grid stability is guaranteed.

Luo, L.; Li, H.; Li, Y.; Rehtanz, C.; Liu, F.: "Study on the Electromagnetic Transient State in the New Converter Transformer Based on Coupled Field-Circuit Method", 11th International IEEE-Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS2008), Wuhan, China, 17.-20. Okt. 2008

The new converter transformer, that is the auto-compensation and harmonic-shielding converter transformer, adopts the self-coupling wiring for the secondary windings, and there is a tap at the linking point of the coupling windings, which is connected with the inductive filters. Compared with the traditional converter transformer, the electromagnetic transient state of the new converter transformer is more complex. This paper will firstly analyze the special wiring of the new converter transformer and the related inductive filtering mechanism. Based on this, the mathematical model and the simulation model will be established by the coupled field-circuit method. And then, the electromagnetic transient state under various short circuits will be analyzed and calculated. The related results will be compared with those of MATLAB/SIMULINK model to verify the correctness of the proposed simulation model and the theoretical analysis. The research works of this paper is important to the electromagnetism design of the new converter transformer.

Wedde, H.F.; Lehnhoff, S.; Moritz, K.; Rehtanz, C.; Krause, O.: "Bottom-Up Self- Organization of Unpredictable Demand and Supply under Decentralized Power Management", 2nd IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self- Organizing Systems, Venedig, Italien, 20.-24. Oktober 2008

In the DEZENT1 project we had established a distributed base model for negotiating electric power from widely distributed (renewable) power sources on multiple levels in succession. Negotiation strategies would be intelligently adjusted by the agents, through (distributed) Reinforcement Learning procedures. The distribution of the negotiated power quantities (under distributed control as well) occurs such that the grid stability is guaranteed, under 0.5 sec. The major objective in this paper was to deal, on the same level of granularity, with short-term power balance fluctuation, in terms of a peak demand and supply management exhibiting highly dynamic, self-organizing, autonomous yet coordinated algorithms under fine-grained distributed control. Our extensive experiments show very clearly that these short-term fluctuations could be leveled down by 70 – 75 %. In this way we have tackled, for the quickly increasing renewable power systems, a crucial problem of its stability, in a novel way that scales very easily due to the completely decentralized control.

Rehtanz, C.; Sengbusch, K.: "Lastflusssteuerung zur Systemstabilisierung", ETG/BDEW-Tutorial „Schutz- und Leittechnik“, Fulda, 11.-12. Nov. 2008

Netze werden durch volatilere Einspeisungen sowie Verlagerungen von Einspeisestandorten höher ausgelastet. Lastflusssteuernde Elemente dienen im Normalbetrieb der Vergleichmäßigung der Leistungsflüsse. In kritischen Situationen bieten sie eine zusätzliche Eingriffsmöglichkeit und sind somit Teil von Systemschutzmaßnahmen. Konventionelle oder leistungselektronische Schrägregler sowie auch selbstgeführte Hochspannungs-Gleichstromübertragungen (HGÜ) sind Elemente mit lastflusssteuernden Eigenschaften. Derartige Elemente müssen in das Gesamtsystem eingebunden werden, so dass sich im Betrieb ein transparentes und deterministisches Verhalten ergibt. Dieser Beitrag stellt die hierzu notwendigen Regelungs- und Schutzkonzepte vor.

Engell, S.; Handschin, E.; Rehtanz, C.; Schultz, R.: "Ressourceneinsatzplanung in der Energie und Verfahrenstechnik", Buchbeitrag in acatech "Produktionsfaktor Mathematik", Herausgeber: Grötschel, M.; Lucas, K.; Mehrmann, V., ISBN: 978-3- 540-89434-6

Der ökologisch nachhaltige, wirtschaftlich effiziente und politisch faire Umgang mit den Ressourcen der Erde ist eine der größten Herausforderungen an die Menschheit im 21. Jahrhundert und impliziert Paradigmenwechsel in allen Bereichen des gesellschaftlichen Lebens. Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik sind traditionell Bereiche, in denen der optimale Umgang mit kostbaren und beschränkt verfügbaren Ressourcen von erstrangiger Bedeutung ist. Zur Lösung der damit verbundenen komplexen Entscheidungsprobleme sind mathematische Methoden schon seit längerem im Einsatz. Hierbei können aber noch längst nicht alle bislang aufgetretene Probleme fundiert angegangen werden. Der wachsende wirtschaftliche und ökologische Druck auf die Effizienz der Produktions- und Versorgungssysteme sowie stärkere Schwankungen von Angebot und Nachfrage führen zu neuen Herausforderungen, für die neue mathematische Methoden und Algorithmen entwickelt werden müssen. Dieser Artikel berichtet über den Stand und die Bedeutung des Einsatzes von Mathematik bei der Ressourceneinsatzplanung in der Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik, geht auf neue Herausforderungen ein und unterbreitet Vorschläge für innovative Forschungsaktivitäten zu deren Bewältigung.

Rehtanz, C.; Sengbusch, K.; Sezi, T.; Simon, R.: "Schutz- und Überwachungskonzepte auf Basis zeitsynchroner Messungen", ETG/BDEW-Tutorial „Schutz- und Leittechnik“, Fulda, 11.-12. Nov. 2008

Zeitsynchrone Messungen stellen Zeigerinformationen von Strömen und Spannungen zur Verfügung. Zentrale Weitbereichsüberwachungssysteme verwenden diese Daten, um Systeminformationen für Schutz- und Überwachungszwecke daraus zu generieren. Zeitlich hoch aufgelöste und präzise Informationen gehen qualitativ über bisherige Systeme hinaus und ermöglichen neue Applikationen für den Netzbetrieb. Der Artikel stellt mögliche Applikationen und reale Anwendungsbeispiele vor.

Wedde, H.F.; Lehnhoff, S.; Rehtanz, C.; Krause, O.: "Von eingebetteten Systemen zu Cyber-Physical Systems: Eine neue Forschungsdimension für verteilte eingebettete Realzeitsysteme", PEARL 2008, GI-Fachgruppe Echtzeitsysteme, Boppard, 27.-28. Nov. 2008

Das Hauptanliegen des Papiers ist, ein Paradigma für Probleme mit neuartigen Integrationsanforderungen für Forschung und Entwicklung in verteilten eingebetteten Echtzeitsystemen zu motivieren und vorzustellen, nämlich den Begriff Cyber-Physical Systems. Bei einer in letzter Zeit stark zunehmenden Anzahl von Realzeitanwendungen können ohne die Berücksichtigung solcher Forderungen keine praktisch brauchbaren Lösungen erwartet werden. Einige Anwendungsfelder werden angesprochen. Im Einzelnen werden dann für Elektroautos, die mit erneuerbaren Energien betrieben werden sollen, einerseits die Management-, verteilte Verhandlungs- und Verteilungsprobleme der benötigten Energie in einem bottom-up Ansatz gelöst. Andererseits wird als Teil unserer Projektarbeit die Bereitstellung von Reserveenergie (bei Spannungseinbrüchen oder lokalen Verbrauchsspitzen) für den allgemeinen Bedarf durch Autobatterien vorgestellt. Es zeigt sich, dass dies effizienter und wesentlich kurzfristiger in unserem verteilten Vorgehen geschehen kann als in traditionellen Verfahren.

Engell, S.; Handschin, E.; Rehtanz, C.; Schultz, R.: "Ressourceneinsatzplanung in der Energie und Verfahrenstechnik", Buchbeitrag in acatech "Produktionsfaktor Mathematik", Herausgeber: Grötschel, M.; Lucas, K.; Mehrmann, V., ISBN: 978-3- 540-89434-6

Der ökologisch nachhaltige, wirtschaftlich effiziente und politisch faire Umgang mit den Ressourcen der Erde ist eine der größten Herausforderungen an die Menschheit im 21. Jahrhundert und impliziert Paradigmenwechsel in allen Bereichen des gesellschaftlichen Lebens. Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik sind traditionell Bereiche, in denen der optimale Umgang mit kostbaren und beschränkt verfügbaren Ressourcen von erstrangiger Bedeutung ist. Zur Lösung der damit verbundenen komplexen Entscheidungsprobleme sind mathematische Methoden schon seit längerem im Einsatz. Hierbei können aber noch längst nicht alle bislang aufgetretene Probleme fundiert angegangen werden. Der wachsende wirtschaftliche und ökologische Druck auf die Effizienz der Produktions- und Versorgungssysteme sowie stärkere Schwankungen von Angebot und Nachfrage führen zu neuen Herausforderungen, für die neue mathematische Methoden und Algorithmen entwickelt werden müssen. Dieser Artikel berichtet über den Stand und die Bedeutung des Einsatzes von Mathematik bei der Ressourceneinsatzplanung in der Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik, geht auf neue Herausforderungen ein und unterbreitet Vorschläge für innovative Forschungsaktivitäten zu deren Bewältigung.

2007

Rehtanz, C.: Innovationen für elektrische Energienetze, BWK, Springer, VDI-Verlag, Nr. 11, 2007

Krause, O.; Rehtanz, C.; Lehnhoff, S.; Wedde, H.; Handschin, E.: Realzeit Netzüberwachung auf Basis hochdimensionaler Körper, VDE-ETG Kongress, Karlsruhe, 23.-24. Okt. 2007

Rehtanz, C.; Häger, U.: Leistungsfluss geregelte Netze mit FACTS-Elementen und selbstgeführten HGÜ, VDE-ETG Kongress, Karlsruhe, 23.-24. Okt. 2007

Handschin, E.; Hager, U.; Horenkamp, W.; Rehtanz, C.; Schulz, W.; Waniek, D.: Estimation of the costs due to renewable energies for a transmission system operator, IEEE European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, Aalborg, Dänemark, 2.-5. Sept. 2007

Rehtanz, C.: Dynamic Power Flow Controllers for Transmission Corridors, Proc. of Bulk Power Systems Dynamic and Control VII, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, 19.-24. Aug. 2007

Rehtanz, C.; Zhang, J.-J.: New types of FACTS-devices for power system secu-rity and efficiency, Proc. of IEEE Powertech, Lausanne, Schweiz, 2.-5. Juli 2007

Rehtanz, C.; e.a.:New Technologies to Improve Power System Dynamic Per-formance, IEEE PES, Task Force on Blackout Experience, Mitigation and Role of New Technologies, Chapter 3 of Final Report "Blackout Experiences and Lessons, Best Practices for System Dynamic Performance, and the Role of New Technolo-gies", Mai 2007

Rehtanz, C.; Pouyan, P. (Editors and main authors); Wide Area Monitoring and Control for Transmission Capability Enhancement, CIGRE-Report, Working Group 601, Study Committee C4, Jan. 2007

Rehtanz, C.: Versicherungen gegen Blackouts, VDI Ingenieurforum, Ausgabe 1/2007

2006

Wu, G. Y.; Chung, C. Y.; Wong, K. P.; Rehtanz, C.: Interruptible Load Manage-ment to Preserve Voltage Stability, Proc. of 7th IEE International Conference on Advances in Power System Control, Operation and Management, APSCOM, Hong-kong, 31. Oktober - 2. November 2006

Rehtanz, C.: Future Network Control and Communication Architecture based on Autonomous Components, Proc. of 7th IEE International Conference on Ad-vances in Power System Control, Operation and Management, APSCOM, Hongkong, 31. Oktober - 2. November 2006

Zhang, X.-P.; Rehtanz, C.; Song, Y.:The Ultra High Voltage Power Grid in China, IET Power Engineer, Oktober / November 2006

Zhang, J.; Liu, Q.; Rehtanz, C.; Rudin, S.:Investigation of several new technolo-gies for mega city power grid issues, Proc. of POWERCON 2006, Chongqing, China, 22.-26. Oktober 2006

Zhang, J.; Liu, Q.; Rehtanz, C.; Rudin, S.: Investigation of new solutions for mega city power grid issues, China International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CICED, Beijing, China, 17.-20. September 2006

Shen, C.; Qiao, Y.; Wu, J.; Lu, Q.; Liu, Q.; Rehtanz, C.: Studies on the integrated simulation platform designed for active splitting control of power systems, Proceedings of the Chinese Society of Electrical Engineering, CSEE, Vol. 26, No. 18, Sept. 2006

Shen, C.; Wu, J.; Qiao, Y.; Lu, Q.; Liu, Q.; Rehtanz, C.: Studies on Active Splitting Control of Power Systems, Proceedings of the Chinese Society of Electrical Engi-neering, CSEE, Vol. 26, No. 13, Juli 2006

2005

Larsson, M.; Rehtanz, C.: Improvement of Cross-border Trading Capabilities through Wide-Area Control of FACTS using OPF Techniques, Automation of Electric Power Systems Journal (ISSN 1000-1026), Special Issue, June 2005

Zima, M.; Larsson, M.; Korba, P.; Rehtanz, C.; Andersson, G.: Design Aspects for Wide Area Monitoring and Control Systems, Special Issue on "Energy Infrastruc-ture Defense Systems", IEEE Proceedings, 2005

2004

Rehtanz, C.; Buchholz, B.M.; Sasse, C.; Miller, N.: Visions of the Industry on Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Energy Resources, 1st Int. Conf. on the Integration of Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Energy Resources, European Commission, Research Directorate, Brüssel, Belgien, 1.-3. Dezember 2004

Rehtanz, C.:
Versicherungen gegen Blackouts - Neue Systeme zur Erhöhung der Übertragungskapazität, Bulletin SEV/VSE, No. 4, 2004

Rehtanz, C.; Stucki, F.; Westermann, D.; Fink, H.; Hyrenbach, M.: Module based design of Substations, ABB Technik / ABB Review, No. 3, 2004

Rehtanz, C.; Hanson, J.; Johansson, S.G.:Netzverstärkungen und Offshore-Anbindungen mit selbstgeführten HGÜ, VDE-Kongress 2004, Berlin, 18.-20. Oktober 2004

Noroozian, M.; Halvarsson, P.; Rehtanz, C.; Korba, P.; Preiss, O.; Pal, B.; Chaudhuri, B.; Green, T.:Incorporating New Development in Control Theory and Wide-Area Measurement in SVC Function for Improving Power System Performance, 15th Conference of the Electric Power Supply Industry, CEPSI 2004, Shanghai, China, 18.-22. Oktober 2004

Rehtanz, C.: New Technologies for Network Security Enhancement, CIGRE Session, Opening Panel Session 'Security of Electricity Supply', Paris, Frankreich, 29. August - 3. September 2004

Zima, M.; Rehtanz, C.; Andersson, G.: Aspects of Wide Area Control of FACTS Devices, IREP Symposium 2004, Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control VI, Cortina D'Ampezzo, Italien, 22.-27. August 2004

Larsson, M.; Rehtanz, C.; Westermann, D.: Improvement of Cross-border Trading Capabilities through Wide-area Control of FACTS, IREP Symposium 2004, Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control VI, Cortina D'Ampezzo, Italien, 22.-27. August 2004

2003

Andersson, G.; Green, T.; Pal, B.; Rehtanz, C.: Advanced FACTS Control, ABB Technik / ABB Review, No. 4, 2003

Naedele, M.; Rehtanz, C.; Westermann, D., Carvalho, A.: Design IT - Transmission System Configurator - Ein Tool zur effizienten Planung von Übertragungssystemen / A Tool for Efficient Transmission System Design, ABB Technik / ABB Review, No. 1, 2003

Bertsch, J.; Zima, M.; Suranyi, A.; Carnal, C.; Rehtanz, C.; Larsson, M.: Experiences with and Perspectives of a System for Wide Area Monitoring of Power Systems, CIGRE/IEEE-PES International Symposium - Quality and Security of Electric Power Delivery Systems, Montreal, Canada, 7.-8.Oktober 2003

Rehtanz, C.:
Erhöhung der Netzeffizenz durch koordinierte Weitbereichsregelung von FACTS, Internationaler VDE/ETG-Kongress 2003, Hamburg, 7.-8. Oktober 2003

Larsson, M.; Rehtanz, C.; Bertsch, J.: Real-Time Voltage Stability Assessments of Transmission Corridors, IFAC Symposium Power Plants and Power Systems, Seoul, Südkorea, 15.-18. September 2003

Larsson, M.; Rehtanz, C.; Bertsch, J.: Monitoring and Operation of Transmission Corridors, IEEE Bologna Power Tech 2003, Bologna, Italien, 23.-26. Juni 2003

Rehtanz, C.; Westermann, D.:
Conceptual Design of Transmission Systems within a Simplified Network Environment, IEEE Bologna Power Tech 2003, Bolo-gna, Italien, 23.-26. Juni 2003

Korba, P.; Larsson, M.; Rehtanz, C.: Detection of Oscillations in Power Systems using Kalman Filtering Techniques, IEEE Conference on Control Applications, CCA, Istanbul, Türkei, 23.-25. Juni 2003

2002

Rehtanz, C.; Bertsch, J; Kaba, M.; Dirrig, R.:Increasing Usable Transmission Ca-pacity by Wide Area Monitoring and Protection, Southern African Power System Protection Conference, Johannesburg, Südafrika, 6.-7. November 2002

Rehtanz, C.; Westermann, D.: Applications of Wide Area Measurement and Control for Transmission Capacity Increase, Conference on Modern Electric Po-wer Systems, MEPS '02, Wrocław, Polen, 11.-13. September 2002

Larsson, M.; Rehtanz, C.: Predictive Frequency Stability Control based on Wide-area Phasor Measurements, IEEE PES Summer Meeting, Chicago, USA, Juli 2002

Ichikawa, T.; Rehtanz, C.: Recent Trends in Distributed Generation - Technology, Grid Integration, System Operation, Survey Paper, 14th Power System Com-putation Conference, PSCC 02, Sevilla, Spanien, 24.-28. Juni 2002

Rehtanz, C.; Westermann, D.: Wide Area Measurement and Control System for Increasing Transmission Capacity in Deregulated Energy Markets, 14th Power System Computation Conference, PSCC 02, Sevilla, Spanien, 24.-28. Juni 2002

Sobierajski, M.; Wilkosz K.; Bertsch, J.; Fulczyk, M.; Rehtanz, C.:
Prompt identification of weak transmission lines regarding voltage collapse, IEE - 5th Int. Con-ference on Power System Management and Control, London, England, 17.-19. April 2002

Rehtanz, C; Bertsch, J.:Intelligenz verhindert Stromunterbrüche - Weitbereichsschutz ermöglicht höhere nutzbare Übertragungsleistung, Bulletin SEV/VSE, 1/02, Januar 2002

Rehtanz, C.; Bertsch, J.: Wide Area Measurement and Protection System for Emergency Voltage Stability Control, IEEE PES Winter Meeting, Panel Session on Emergency Voltage Stability Control, New York, USA, Januar 20

2001

Westermann, D.; Rehtanz, C.: Non-intrusive control system architecture for AC power transmission, IEE - 7th International Conference on AC-DC Power Trans-mission, London, England, 28-30 November 2001

Sarasua, A.E.; Rehtanz, C.; Handschin, E.; Mercado, P.E.: Analysis of System-Inherent Oscillations in Power Systems with Several Load Models, IEEE - Porto Power Tech 2001, Porto, Portugal, 10.-13. September 2001

Rehtanz, C.; Westermann, D.: Integrated AC transmission systems with non-intrusive control, IEEE - Porto Power Tech 2001, Porto, Portugal, 10.-13. September 2001

Rehtanz, C.; Bertsch, J.: A new wide area protection system, IEEE - Porto Po-wer Tech 2001, Porto, Portugal, 10.-13. September 2001

Rehtanz, C.; Westermann, D.: Non-Intrusive System Control for AC Transmission Systems, International Conference on Power Systems, ICPS 2001, CIGRE, Wu-han, Hubei, China, 3.-5. September 2001

Rehtanz, C.: Wide Area Protection System and Online Stability Assessment based on Phasor Measurements, Bulk Power Systems Dynamics and Control - V, Security and Reliability in a Changing Environment, Onomichi City, Japan, 26.-31. August 2001

Leder, C.; Rehtanz, C.:Electric Power System's Stability Assessment and On-line Provision of Control Actions Using Self-Organizing Maps, International Work-conference on Artificial and Natural Neural Networks, IWANN 2001, Granada, Spanien, 13.-15. Juni 2001

Rehtanz, C.:Integration and Management of Distributed Power Generation, 6th Int. Workshop on Electric Power Control Center, Opio, Frankreich, 10.-13. Juni 2001

Sarasua, A.E.; Mercado, P.E.; Handschin, E.; Rehtanz, C.: Consideraciones Para Una Adecuada Representación de Oscilaciones no Amortiguadas en Sistemas Eléctricos, IX Encuentro Regional Latino-Americano del Cigré, Foz de Iguazu, Bra-silien, 27.-31. Mai 2001

Bertsch, J.; Kaba, M.; Quaintance, B.; Rehtanz, C.: Enhanced Reliability and other Benefits with Online Security Assessment, IEE, 7th Int. Conference on Develop-ments in Power System Protection, Amsterdam, Niederlande, 9.-12. April 2001

2000

Leder, C.; Becker, C.; Rehtanz, C.: Visualization of Large Scale Power Systems Based on Online Security Assessment and Pre-Calculated Control Actions, In-ternational Workshop Liberalization and Modernization of Power Systems: Operation and Control Problems, Siberian Energy Institute, Irkutsk, Russland, 01.-04. August 2000

Becker, C.; Leder, C.; Rehtanz, C.: Autonomous Systems for Preventive Co-ordinating Control of FACTS-Devices, International Workshop Liberalization and Modernization of Power Systems: Operation and Control Problems, Siberian Energy Institute, Irkutsk, Russland, 01.-04. August 2000

Rehtanz, C.; Suter, M.: Microturbines for Microgrids - Control, Management and Implementation of Distributed Power Generation Units, International Workshop Liberalization and Modernization of Power Systems: Operation and Control Prob-lems, Siberian Energy Institute, Irkutsk, Russland, 01.-04. August 2000

Rehtanz, C.; Leder, C.:
Stability Assessment of Electric Power Systems using Growing Neural Gas and Self-Organizing Maps, ESANN '2000, 8th European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks, Brügge, Belgien, 26.-28. April 2000

1999

Rehtanz, C.:
Visualisation of Voltage Stability in Large Electric Power Systems, IEEE Proceedings Generation, Transmission, Distribution, Vol. 146, No. 6, S. 573-576, November 1999

Rehtanz, C.:
Systemic Use of Multifunctional SMES in Electric Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 14, S.1422-27, No. 4, November 1999

Handschin, E.; Becker, C.; Rehtanz, C.; Park J.-K.; Moon, S.-I., Brosda, J.: Automatic Fuzzy Rule Generation for Coordination of FACTS-Devices, Journal of Electrical Engineering and Information Science, Vol. 4., No. 6, Seoul, Korea, S. 747-753, 1999

1998

Rehtanz, C.; Kuhlmann, D.: Applications of the Self-Organizing Map in Electric Power Systems, Proc. of 6th European Congress on Intelligent Techniques and Soft Computing, EUFIT ´98, Aachen, 07. - 10. September 1998, Verlag Mainz, Vol. 1, S. 195-199, 1998 

Becker, C.; Rehtanz, C.: Autonomous Systems for Intelligent Coordinated Control of FACTS-Devices, Proc. of Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control IV - Restructuring, Santorini, Griechenland, 24. - 28. August 1998, Nat. Tech. Univ. A-then, S.691-7, 1998 

Becker, C.; Handschin, E.; Rehtanz, C.: Coordinated Decentralized Control of FACTS-Devices Applying Autonomous Systems, Proc. of International Confe-rence of Electrical Engineering, ICEE ´98, Kyongju, Korea, 21. - 25. Juli 1998 

1997

Handschin, E.; Rehtanz, C.: Kohonen Neural Networks for Visualization and Analysis of Voltage Stability, Proc. of 10th International Conference on Power System Automation and Control, PSAC ´97, Bled, Slovenien, 01. - 03. Oktober 1997

Handschin, E.; Nikodem, T.; Palma, R.; Rehtanz, C.: Object-Oriented Based Me-thods and Techniques in Control Centres Applied to Open Access Schemes, Proc. of 10th International Conference on Power System Automation and Control, PSAC ´97, Bled, Slovenien, 01. - 03. Oktober 1997

Handschin, E.; Kuhlmann, D.; Rehtanz, C.: Visualization and Analysis of Voltage Stability Using Self-Organizing Neural Networks, Proc. of 7th International Con-ference on Artificial Neural Networks, ICANN ´97, Lausanne, Schweiz, 08. - 10. Okto-ber 1997, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Nr. 1327, S.1113-1118, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997

1996

Ju, P.; Handschin, E.; Rehtanz, C.: A Comparative Study on the Nonlinear Dynamic Load Models, Proc. of 12th Power Systems Computation Conference, Dres-den, 19. - 23. August 1996, Vol. 2, S. 1069-1074, 1996

1994

Handschin, E.; Damschen, C.; Rehtanz, C.; Stephanblome, T.: Effective and Economic Improvement of Voltage Stability by a SMES, Proc. of the ECC-Seminar on Bulk Power System Voltage Phenomena - III, Davos, Schweiz, 23. - 27. August 1994, S. 561-566, ECC, Fairfax, Virginia